Liukeng, a thousand-year-old village in Jiangxi Province, lives by the sun

Release time:

2015-03-16 09:45


[The finishing touch] Liukeng, Le'an County, Jiangxi Province, is a thousand-year-old village known as "the last orphan of the Chinese culture of farming and reading". In the village, row upon row of ancient buildings exudes a quaint and tranquil temperament. Walking in the streets and alleys, I don't know what year it is today.
Liukeng Village, known as "the first village of the ages", is located on the bank of the Wujiang River in the southeast of Niutian Town, Le'an County, Jiangxi Province.
Liukeng Village has an ancient and proud history and a highly developed civilization. The village was built during the Shengyuan period of the Southern Tang Dynasty of the Five Dynasties (937-943), and it belonged to Yongfeng County of Jizhou, and was annexed to Le'an County of Fuzhou in the Southern Song Dynasty. It has a history of more than 1,000 years. This village is mostly surnamed Dong, and it is a blood village where Dong's single surname lives together. The Dong family respected Dong Zhongshu, a great scholar in the Western Han Dynasty, as the first ancestor, and recognized the Tang Dynasty prime minister Dong Jin as their ancestor. According to genealogy records, Dong Qingran, the grandson of Dong Jin, moved from Anhui to Yihuang County in Fuzhou, Jiangxi during the war in the late Tang Dynasty, and his great-grandson Dong He moved to Liukeng to settle down and became the founder of Liukeng. The Song Dynasty was one of the most glorious periods in the history of Liukeng. At that time, it was known as "one school and five scholars, two dynasties, four ministers, two champions in civil and military, and scholars are like stars" and "Ou (Ouyang Xiu) Dong (Liukeng Dong) famous hometown". In the Yuan Dynasty, the village was destroyed by the soldiers. During the Ming and Qing dynasties, a man of insight in the village, Shao followed his ancestral business, started teaching and running schools, built temples, and developed bamboo and wood trade, making Liukeng Village prosperous again. From the beginning of the Song Dynasty to the end of the Qing Dynasty, there were 26 schools and schools in the village during the Ming and Wanli eras, and 28 during the Qing Dynasty. There were 1 scholar in the village, 1 champion in martial arts, 34 scholars, 78 people, and more than 100 people who entered the official career, ranging from political affairs, ministers, master books, and teachings. There are only 4 villages with more than 30 Jinshi in Jiangxi Province. Liukeng Village is the only ancient village with such well-preserved cultural relics, which is really rare.
handmade firecrackers
Most of the ancient village dwellings in Liukeng can be tested by their age, among them, there are almost no defects or damages from the Wanli period of the Ming Dynasty to the Qianlong period of the Qing Dynasty. Passing by them is like reading a wire-bound book of the years. The content of the book is like a wonderful time-travel novel. Every visitor is like a character in the book - either a down-to-earth scholar, or a high school scholar, Or a wealthy businessman, or a farmer and a woodcutter... All kinds of people have read the history of the ancient village "five hundred years of farming and reading, five hundred years of farming and merchants".
In the village, there are many inscriptions and plaques of famous people of all dynasties, which are scattered on plaques, inscriptions and couplets. In history, Liukeng Dong's literary style was prosperous, and his officialdom was like clouds. The villagers do not understand the preservation and appreciation of value, but they like to collect them, just to preserve the glory of their ancestors. The collections that should have been placed in the glass case of the museum were hung on the wall and placed on the table at will. When you touch the dust on the collection, you will be surprised to find that the signature is actually the name of a famous person through the ages, which makes people suspect that it is a fake. The thirst for fame, the publicity of the way of farming and reading, and the dedication to the inheritance of poetry and books make the air of Liukeng seem to be haunted by the "yeast" that gave birth to generations of literati and celebrities. Therefore, no matter how the buildings in the village are carved, they look calm and introverted, with a delicate but not complicated, agile but not flamboyant, spectacular but not luxurious charm.
The self-sufficient farming life of Liukeng villagers seems to have never changed: there are still dingy blacksmith shops and cobbler shops with strong smell in the village. The old people like to use ancient coins as cards. Of course, cattle and sheep are also available. There is an alley in the village, which is usually indistinguishable from other alleys, but when it comes to the market day, this alley becomes the "commercial street" in the village. Eggs, grains, utensils, and cloth are all placed in the alley. For trading, all the materials are produced and manufactured by the villagers themselves - Liukeng is almost a self-sufficient small world.
When the sun is fine, it is common for some people to squat under the eaves and bask in the sun while chatting. The old people will choose a place without dark corners, put a rattan chair, and sit for most of the day. The sun changed the angle of exposure, and they moved the chairs, leaving traces of the years little by little.


Cultural relics exhibition hall

The Cultural Relics Exhibition Hall is located in the Zhenqing Gong Temple on the south side of the east end of the middle lane of Liukeng Village. This ancient building was built in the Qing Dynasty and is a two-level courtyard building with a courtyard in the front. The book has inscribed couplets on both sides, the front hall hangs a plaque of "Sui Jinshi", the back hall hangs a large gold plaque with the words "Baobentang", the shrine in the back hall has a beautifully carved "spiritual house", and the front eaves ceiling has multiple sets of paintings .
In order to rescue, protect and utilize Liukeng ancient culture, in September 2000, under the guidance of the county Liukeng Ancient Culture Protection and Utilization Working Committee, Liukeng Village Committee and Cultural Relics Administration launched an exhibition of cultural relics exhibition hall, showing some cultural relics and historical The cultural relics are concentrated in the "Zhenqing Ancestral Hall". There are 35 cultural relics exhibited for the first time, including the Ming Xuande Longquan celadon incense burner, the Ming Dynasty Wanli ten-year Fule Liuxi Dong family tree, and Li Bai's Chang'an drunken porcelain plate paintings. A group of very precious Cultural relics and important plaques, couplets, furniture in Ming and Qing Dynasties, etc.
Beginning on October 1 of that year, during the golden tourist season of the National Day holiday, Liukeng Village, Le'an County, launched the first exhibition of cultural relics in the village's possessions. , even the people in the village are rarely seen. In order to fully demonstrate the richness and breadth of the historical relics of Liukeng Village, it has been promoted as an important tourism project in Liukeng since then. Since then, the exhibition content has been continuously enriched in the cultural relics exhibition hall. In May 2001 and May 2002, important cultural relics were added twice in a row. At present, there are 40 cultural relics in the exhibition hall.


Hall of Three Officials

Sanguan Hall is located at the foot of the green hill about one li south of Liukeng Village. It is built on the back of the mountain and facing the river. Beautiful environment, fresh breath.
Sanguan Hall is a folk Taoist temple, it is an ancient temple with double eaves and warped corners, with brick and wood structure. It was built in the Song Dynasty, and the existing building is the 20th year of Daoguang in the Qing Dynasty (1840). The lower level of the Sanguan Hall is a shrine with a porch in front. Its facade, beams, ceilings, etc. are decorated with wood carvings and colorful paintings; On the throne of the temple, the statues of the three immortals "Qiu, Wang, and Guo" are enshrined, and the atmosphere is solemn and solemn. The upper floor of the Sanguan Hall is the Kuixing Pavilion, which is smaller in area than the temple. The four walls of the pavilion are decorated with wooden partitions, the ceiling of the pavilion and the caisson are painted with colorful paintings, and the pavilion is equipped with a shrine to enshrine the statue of Kuixing.
The so-called "three officials" refer to the three gods of heaven, earth and water that Taoism believes in. Legend has it that the official of heaven bestows blessings, the official of earth pardons sins, and the official of water relieves misfortune. Therefore, for hundreds of years, there has been an endless stream of people going to the Sanguan Temple to worship. "Kuixing" refers to the first four stars in the Big Dipper, and also refers to the first star of the Big Dipper. Therefore, it is extended to mean the head. Therefore, the person who takes the first place in the examination and competition is called the winner, and in the imperial examination era, the first person in the examination is called Kuiyuan. "Kui Xing" is also a common name for "Kui Xing". There is an article about Kui Zhu in the Han Dynasty Wei Shu Book of Filial Piety and Aid God. Therefore, later "Kui Xing" was considered to be the god who dominated the rise and fall of articles, and Taoism also respected him as a god. Therefore, Kuixing Pavilion and Sanguan Palace are often integrated. building. The worship of Kuixing was the lofty belief of Liukeng people in the imperial examination era. The building of Kuixing Pavilion is not only a place to worship Kuixing, but also a place for literati to study and meet elegantly.


Wudang Pavilion

Wudang Pavilion is located in the northwest of Liukeng Village, about half a mile away from the northern edge of the village, and is built on the back of the river facing the village. On its west side, there are towering ancient trees, and the former is the lower section of Longhu Lake. The environment is quiet and the area is open.
The Wudang Pavilion was built in the Ming Dynasty and has been repaired or rebuilt. The existing buildings are brick and wood structures, mainly composed of Xuanwu Hall, Xuanwu Pavilion and Yanwang Hall. It is a building that integrates Taoism, Buddhism and folk gods in one temple. Xuanwu Hall has a corridor in front and a shrine built against the back wall, enshrining a "Maitreya Buddha". At the eastern end of the back wall, there is a door that communicates with Xuanwu Pavilion. Xuanwu Pavilion has a front yard and a back hall. The hall is a double-layered building with double eaves. The lower layer is a shrine. On its shrine, the "God of Zhenwu Zhentian in the North" is enshrined. The upper floor is Wenchang Pavilion, which is decorated with partitions. The elegant meeting place of the literati. On the east side of the building is the Hall of the King of Hell. The front hall is dedicated to the throne of the King of Hell and the judge.


Dragon Lake

Longhu Lake is located on the west side of Liukeng Village. It is composed of seven ponds that are closely connected from south to north and stretch like a dragon, hence the name Longhu. There are six cobblestone roads across the ancient lake, each of which is connected by a stone arch bridge. There is a dragon stream in the southwest of Longhu Lake. The villagers introduce the stream water into the lake. The lake keeps the water flowing for many years, the fish swim in the water, and the lotus flowers bloom on the water. It is a place that the people of Liukeng Village in the past dynasties cherished and revered, and it is also a major attraction for tourists to visit Liukeng Village.
According to the family tree of Liukeng Dong in the tenth year of Wanli (1582), Longhu Lake was redesigned and planned by the twenty-second Sun Dong Sui of Liukeng Dong family on the basis of the old Wuhu (Five Ponds). Dong Sui was the only high-ranking official from Liukeng Village in the late Ming Dynasty. He successively served as magistrate of Zhijiang County in Hubei Province, Tongzhi of Jianyang Prefecture in Fujian Province, and Minister of Punishment in Nanjing. He was clean and honest in politics and did not hold power. He had the reputation of being a capable official and was well appreciated by the people of the time. At the age of sixty-one, he was excluded by others and returned to his hometown. Dong Sui was both a capable official and a famous scholar of Neo-Confucianism. In the more than 20 years after he returned to his hometown, he joined Dong Ji (Gunan), who was the magistrate of Dazu County, Sichuan Province, and Dong Yu, who was the magistrate of Dongguan County and the provincial censor of Shandong Province. The rectification and improvement of family organizations and community undertakings have vigorously done three major things. These three events have had a profound impact on the history of Liukeng Village. First, in the 41st year of Jiajing (1562), the ancestral hall was rebuilt on the original site of the ancestral hall burned down by the rogues in Fujian and Guangxi. The second is to actively organize the compilation and publication of new genealogies. The third is to re-plan and construct the main part of Liukeng Village, including the renovation of Longhu Lake, and to protect Longhu Lake: "Never disturb the soil lightly", "Never block by force", "Perpetrators are not allowed to block" Clan rules such as "combining ethnic groups and attacking them" require the clan people to strictly abide by them.


Dong's Ancestral Hall Ruins

"Dong's Ancestral Hall" was built for Dong He, the founding ancestor of the Liukeng Dong family. In the twenty-fifth year of Shaoxing in the Southern Song Dynasty (1155), Dong He, the eighth-generation grandson, the champion Dong Deyuan, was appointed to the political affairs office, and he made a special decree to posthumously as a great Situ on behalf of the emperor. The full name of the temple is "Song Dynasty. Donate to the Great Ancestral Hall of the Great Situ Donggong".
The Great Ancestral Hall was built in the second year of Hongwu in the early Ming Dynasty (1369) and is located in the Xinglin Ruins (the exact location is missing). In the third year of Jiajing (1524), the Dong family agreed that the land should be rebuilt on the open and quiet Molan Island in the north of the village. After completion, it was stipulated that the eldest grandson of Dong He would be the eldest son and preside over his sacrifices. In the eleventh year of Jiajing's reign, Ouyang De from Jiangxi Taihe, who was at the time of Nanjing's State Child Supervisory Division, wrote "The Record of the Son of the Lizong of the Dong Family". In the 40th year of Jiajing, the ancestral hall was burned down by the peasant army of Zhonglingxiu in Fujian and Guangxi. In the 42nd year of Jiajing, the 61-year-old Nanjing Xingbu Langzhong Dong Sui soon resigned from office and returned to his hometown. Together with Dong Ji and other officials, he advocated the gathering of clansmen and rebuilt the great ancestral hall on the original site, which was even larger and covered an area of ​​7,000 square meters. . Its composition is clearly drawn in the "Genealogy of Dong Clan in Liukeng" in the tenth year of Wanli in the Ming Dynasty (1582).
The Great Ancestral Hall was built by the Dong family in Liukeng. From the site and composition, it can be seen that the scene is broad, the structure is grand, and it is elegant and spectacular. The genealogy describes the great ancestral hall as follows: "Biaofang and Tandao, heavy gates and wings, secluded rooms and lofty halls, stacked storehouses, Suzhaijinglu, around the walls and rope lanes, all of which are incomparable." It can be said that Liukeng ancient The most built is enough to reflect the glory of the Dong family in the past. The ancestral hall, which stood for more than 360 years, was unfortunately destroyed in the 16th year of the Republic of China (1927), when it was burned down by Xing Yutang soldiers, the remnants of Sun Chuanfang, a Beiyang warlord. Its main building is now only a fragment of ruins. Five granite pillars with a diameter of 0.7 meters and a height of 8 meters are left on the "Dun Mutang". The giant red stone lion still stands on the ruins, and the prime minister looks at it. The majesty still exists. On the east and west sides of the courtyard, the "Liu Mingxian" square and the "Sance Liuxin" square remain, still showing their former demeanor to people today.
Standing on the ruins of the Great Ancestral Hall gives people a desolate, ancient and deep feeling. The mottled walls, standing stone pillars, and majestic stone lions induce people to admire the prosperity of the Liukeng Dong family and the grand ancestral hall in the past. It is a pity that later generations called the ruins of the Great Ancestral Hall the "Yuanmingyuan" of Liukeng.

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