China First Village “Liukeng Village, Le'an County, Jiangxi”
Author: Tang Jincheng
On May 25, 1997, Director Zhang Wenbin of the State Administration of Cultural Heritage visited Liukeng Village, Niutian Town, Le'an County, Jiangxi Province, accompanied by the leaders of the three-level governments of Jiangxi Province, Fuzhou Special Region and Le'an County. The five characters of "China's First Village" comprehensively summarize the cultural taste, social value, historical value and cultural relic value of Liukeng Village. The reason why Liukeng Village has attracted the attention of the director of the State Administration of Cultural Heritage is inseparable from the unexpected discovery of Liukeng Ancient Village, the concern of government leaders at all levels and the research of cultural relic experts.
(1) Liukeng Ancient Village has been immortal for thousands of years
Liukeng Village is located between a basin in the southwestern mountainous area of Le'an County, Jiangxi Province. According to historical records: before the Tang Dynasty, this place was still a wild place where wild animals were infested and inaccessible. In the first year of Wu Zetian's Yanzai (694), a Taoist priest came here to practice, and eventually he flew away into the clouds. It was later renamed as "Flow Pit". During the Southern Tang Dynasty (937-975) period of the Five Dynasties, Dong He and his family moved here in Yihuang County, Jiangxi Province, and the pioneering camp was only populated. After several generations of farming and family business, Dong's family became more and more prosperous, and Dong Wenguang, the grandson of Dong He, donated money to start his studies, and Dong's style of writing began. According to historical records: From the Song Dynasty to the Qing Dynasty, 28 academies were built in Liukeng Village. There were 2 middle-ranking scholars (one in literature and one in martial arts), 44 middle-ranking scholars, 20 best-granting scholars, and more than 200 middle-ranking scholars. No illiteracy. Wu Cheng, a famous scholar in the Yuan Dynasty, said: "During the three hundred years of the Song Dynasty, the five surnames of a family of Confucian officials, Shengle, Zeng, Wang, Cai, and Yan, were the first, followed by Chongwang, Zeng, and Yanzui, Wang, Le, and Le. The surname Dong of Anyungai Township has more department names than Zeng, Cai and Yan; the title of the school is also higher than that of Le and Cai… ” According to Wu Yan, Dong's family has more than 300 people who have taken the imperial examinations and Yinen's official positions. Among them, there are two prime ministers and Liu Shangshu among the prominent officials. So far, the remote Liukeng Village is no longer silent. As the saying goes: "The rich have distant relatives in the deep mountains", and celebrities from all over the world come to Liukeng to visit and study abroad. Inscribed the "Zhuangyuan Building" plaque for Liukeng Village. There are more than 400 inscriptions and plaques of famous people in Liukeng Village, including Liu Yi, Nie Bao, Zeng Guofan, Original works by Zuo Zongtang and others. Due to the prominent family of Dong’s family in Liukeng, the Jinshi and the doctor in the village all live in Gaofu and imposing Xuanyuan, so it is known as “the first village of Jiangyou”.
In 1997, Tang Sheng was photographed in front of Liukeng Village
In the 13th year of the reign of Emperor Shizu of Yuan Dynasty (1276), Yuan soldiers entered Lin'an, the capital of Song Dynasty (Hangzhou, Zhejiang), and Liukeng Village responded to the call of Song Prime Minister Wen Tianxiang to raise troops to be a diligent king; Dong's army was defeated, and Liukeng Village was destroyed by Yuan The soldiers were bloodbathed, and the ancient buildings were destroyed. In the Yuan Dynasty, the Dong family was virtuous and virtuous, and no one entered the officialdom, and the family and morals declined. In the Ming Dynasty, Liukeng Dong's family revived, and elites came out in large numbers. In order to revive the former glory of Liukeng Village, Dong Sui, the director of the Nanjing Ministry of Punishment, personally presided over the design of a new Liukeng Village with complete planning. The new village is built along the Wujiang River. There are seven piers along the river for mooring of merchant ships; the village is paved with cobblestones, with a main broad street in the north and south, and seven narrow alleys in the east and west, forming a chessboard pattern of seven horizontal and one vertical; seven branch alleys. It leads directly to the wharf and has a drainage channel, which completely solves the problem of drainage and dredging in the village. At the same time, the Dong family also built seven two-story attics on the pier along the river, and connected them with high walls, like a castle. The Dong family built houses according to the branches in the village, and each tribe built an ancestral hall. There were more than 70 branch ancestral halls in the village, and a general ancestral hall was built for the whole family to worship. The Dong family inherited the "Nuo Dance", a living fossil of witch dance handed down from ancient China, which has been performing well for thousands of years. There is still a theater that is well preserved. Every folk festival, the villagers wear props to greet the gods, dance steel whips, and turn clouds and rain on the stage, pushing the festive festival to a climax. The Dong family built 8 temples and palaces on the mountain outside Liukeng Village. In the temple, the gods were lined up, the lamp oil was endless, and the incense was prosperous; every day of the fire festival, pilgrims from all over the world flocked to it, and the peak period was no less than that of Taoism. The holy place "Longhu Mountain". In order to reward the advanced and motivate the less advanced, the Dong family built 26 memorial buildings including Zhuangyuan Building and Wuguifang in Liukeng Village, which revealed the cultural atmosphere of the Dong family. In the village, the large pit left by borrowing soil for the construction of the city was transformed into a reservoir, which is called "Longhu"; Dong's planting willows and ducks in the pond are quite elegant.
In the early Qing Dynasty, the Manchus in the northeast sent troops to unify China. In order to survive, the Dong family turned to business. In the Qing Dynasty, there were more than 100 people in the entire village of the Damu clan merchants. Even in the rich and crown capital of the family, they owned more than 700,000 mu of mountain forests and 384 mountain ranges. There are many fertile fields in the neighboring counties, and Liukeng Village has also become a "city of ten thousand families", and Dong has become the flag bearer of the Jiangyou Business Gang.
In the 14th year of the Republic of China (1925), Sun Chuanfang, the commander-in-chief of the Allied Forces of the Five Provinces, sent a regiment of his subordinate to guard Liukeng. The Dong clan could not bear the humiliation and rebelled against the clan, and finally failed because they were outnumbered. The head of the regiment set fire to the main temple of the Dong clan to punish the clan of the Dong clan, and the girl of the Dong clan was also taken away by the head of the regiment. After the Autumn Harvest Uprising, Mao Zedong and Zhu De led the Red Army of Workers and Peasants to establish the Central Soviet Revolutionary Base in Jinggangshan, Jiangxi. Liukeng Village also belongs to the area under the jurisdiction of the revolutionary base. Chairman of the Central Soviet Mao Zedong personally visited Liukeng Village and stayed here. The houses he lived in are still intact, and the caisson on the roof can be called the flower of art. In April 1949, the People's Liberation Army launched a great victory in the Battle of Crossing the River. All parts of Jiangxi were liberated one after another. Liukeng Village sent representatives to negotiate with the People's Liberation Army, so that the village was peacefully liberated, and all the cultural relics and ancient buildings in the village were well preserved. During the Cultural Revolution, due to the Dong family's strong awareness of cultural relics protection, the young and middle-aged people of the clan automatically organized to maintain order in the village, so that neither the rebels nor the Red Guards dared to enter the village to make trouble; thus, this thousand-year-old village was completely protected. It has become a splendid pearl in the history of ancient Chinese architecture.
(2) I am shocked and have friends come from afar
After the founding of New China, Liukeng Village was under the jurisdiction of Niutian Town, Le'an County, because Le'an County was an old revolutionary base and a place where revolutionary leaders Mao Zedong, Zhu De, Zhou Enlai, Peng Dehuai, Huang Gonglue and others fought. Delegated here, Wang Jiaxiang was also injured here, so Le'an County is famous for its revolutionary historical relics ranking first in the country. Due to the limitation of the concept of the times, the local government only took protective measures for the local revolutionary historical relics, while the ancient cultural relics of Liukeng Village, which represented the feudal construction, were gradually forgotten by people and gradually submerged in the long river of history. In 1989, Ms. Sun Yuying, then the head of the Propaganda Department of the Le'an County Party Committee of the Communist Party of China, reported the situation of Liukeng Ancient Village to Zhou Luanshu, Minister of the Propaganda Department of the Jiangxi Provincial Committee of the Communist Party of China, which immediately attracted the attention of Minister Zhou. In August of the same year, Minister Zhou Luanshu personally went to Liukeng Village to conduct a field inspection. He saw that Liukeng Ancient Village still had the same ancient appearance and a wide variety of cultural relics. Among the more than 500 buildings in the village, 309 buildings were built in Ming and Qing Dynasties, including 239 residential houses. , 26 buildings, 32 ancestral halls, 8 temples, 1 theater, 2 ancient tombs, and 1 academy are well preserved; and the ancient building plaques, couplets, carvings, reliefs and other works of art are all from the hands of famous teachers of the past dynasties. , the exquisite art is rare in the world. Minister Zhou Luanshu immediately invited Mr. Peng Shifan, curator of Jiangxi Provincial Museum, to visit Liukeng Village. In the winter of 1990, five experts including Zhan Kaixun, a cultural relic expert from Jiangxi Province, conducted a comprehensive inspection and identification of cultural relics in Liukeng Village. The experts agreed that Liukeng Ancient Village has a very high cultural relic value.
In March 1996, Minister Zhou Luanshu organized Professor Luo Zhewen, the master of ancient Chinese cultural relics, at the National Cultural Relics Conference held in Lushan Mountain, and invited experts from the State Administration of Cultural Heritage of the Qing Dynasty to visit Liukeng. On November 3, Professor Luo Zhewen, the leader of the ancient construction expert group of the State Administration of Cultural Heritage and the president of the Chinese Society of Cultural Relics, as well as cultural relic experts Zheng Xiaoxie, Bao Shixing, and reporter Liu Wei of China Cultural Relics News, were invited to Liukeng Village for a three-day inspection. Professor Luo Zhewen believes: "The ancient village of Liukeng is well-preserved and rich in cultural relics. The records of Zhou Xiang, most of which can be dated; the villages and buildings have their own characteristics, and the "Dong's Genealogy" preserved in Liukeng Village of the Ming Dynasty is extremely valuable. ; Many cultural relics must be rescued, registered and identified, and this ancient village should be fully protected, publicized, researched and utilized. "Besides the visit, Professor Luo Zhewen happily wrote a couplet, saying: "Recalling the past, the years are so long, it used to be the crown of the capital, and the article is the best in the world; I am happy now, the sixth plenary session is good, and I hope to see the future. The humanities have re-emerged and once again led the way. ” Horizontal approval is “Liukeng revitalization”. Zheng Xiaoxie, an expert Guan Hou said: "The ancient village of Liukeng is less than 4 square kilometers, but its connotation is rich, and it is also relatively large in the country, comparable to Dangjia Village in Hancheng, Shaanxi. There is no doubt that this ancient village should be well protected, and it should be given an ID card suitable for it. I personally think that it can be considered to be declared as a national level. ” Expert Bao Shixing also said: “ Liukeng is a national treasure. There are two important figures in history, one is Dong Wenguang, who engaged in the construction of spiritual civilization in the Song Dynasty; the second is Dong Sui, who engaged in a material civilization in the Ming Dynasty The construction has laid a good foundation for the flow pit. ”
The investigation of Liukeng by experts from the State Administration of Cultural Heritage immediately aroused great attention from news agencies; Guangming Daily published an exclusive article on the front page of "Liukeng, an ancient village with a thousand years in Jiangxi, the epitome of ancient Chinese civilization". Li Tieying, a member of the Political Bureau of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China, after reading it, gave instructions to Zhang Wenbin, director of the State Administration of Cultural Heritage on November 19, saying: "The matter is true, and the Jiangxi Cultural Relics Bureau should be responsible for formulating regulations as soon as possible, protecting them, and making plans to support and protect them. ”On November 22, Director Zhang Wenbin instructed: “Issue the instructions of the leaders and ask Comrade Zhang Bo (Deputy Director of the State Administration of Cultural Heritage) to instruct the Cultural Relics Department to investigate and verify. If the situation is true, please follow the instructions of Comrade Tie Ying and instruct the Jiangxi Cultural Relics Bureau Develop regulations and protection programmes and provide support. ”In March 1997, during the National Committee of the Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference, Comrade Li Tieying specially listened to the report of Ms. Zhou Qi, the deputy commissioner in charge of culture in Fuzhou Region, and affirmed the achievements made by governments at all levels in the protection of Liukeng cultural relics. In accordance with the spirit of the instructions of the head of the central government, Director Liu Huixiang of the Fuzhou Cultural Bureau immediately compiled the expert speech and forwarded it to the "Linchuan Cultural Association" led by the Fuzhou Cultural Bureau, hoping that the Linchuan Cultural Association would organize a seminar in Beijing.
On March 9, 1997, I hosted the "Le'an Liukeng Seminar" at the Changbai Mountain Restaurant in Beijing. Shen Tinggao, Tang Jincheng, Deng Zhonghe, Jiang Tianlin, Shen Kuan, Yuan Xiaohua and Liu Huixiang, experts and scholars from the Party History Office, China Youth Audio-Visual Publishing House of the Youth League Central Committee, the Department of Sociology of Peking University, Beijing Ancient Architecture and Garden Design Institute, Linchuan University Cultural Association, Yin Guangcan, Gu Bo and others attended the meeting. Everyone expressed their opinions and offered suggestions for the development and construction of Liukeng, which made the seminar achieve fruitful results.
Tang Sheng embraced Liukeng's preserved road card and fell into his thoughts
On April 16, 1997, at the invitation of Director Liu Huixiang of the Fuzhou Cultural Bureau and Yin Guangcanzhi, Deputy Secretary of the Communist Party of China's Le'an County Committee, I went to Liukeng Village, Le'an County, Jiangxi Province for an inspection in the rain. When I met Huang Maoheng, the vice governor of Jiangxi Province, who came to inspect it, I suggested to her that this "Dong's Genealogy" compiled in the Ming Dynasty should be protected and should not be freely read to avoid damage. Vice Governor Huang asked me very humbly about the method of cultural relic protection. I introduced to her the reproduction technology of the collo version, and suggested to use the collo plate technology to copy and protect the inscriptions, paintings and calligraphy of ancient famous people in the village, and the "Dong's Genealogy". . We accompanied Vice Governor Huang to watch the villagers' "Nuo Dance" performance in the ancient theater in the village. Although we don't know the content of the Nuo dance performance, it is a living fossil of the primitive oriental witch dance, which can be preserved to this day. is a miracle.
After the inspection, Secretary Li Qiusheng and Deputy Secretary Yin Guangcan of the Le'an County Party Committee of the Communist Party of China cleaned up the dust for us in the guest house of the County Party Committee. Secretary Li Qiusheng met me when he was studying at the Central Party School in Beijing, so the reunion of old friends was more cheerful and relaxed. Secretary Li Qiusheng took me to his office and said to me with a very heavy heart: "President Tang, speaking from the bottom of my heart, the development of Liukeng is a good thing, but our county is relatively poor, and if a leader or expert comes, we will If you have to send cars, send people, and entertain, you can't afford to pay! "From the words of Secretary Li Qiusheng, I deeply realized his love for the people and the hometown. Since the discovery of Liukeng Village, leaders and experts at all levels have flocked to it. The county party committee and the county government not only have to send cars and people to accompany them, but also allocate a huge amount of hospitality expenses, which not only brings huge economic benefits to the county party committee and the county government. The pressure has even seriously affected the daily work arrangements of the county party committee and county government. I suggest Secretary Li: Speed up the construction of Liukeng tourism environment as soon as possible, while opening to the outside world, while conducting inspections and attracting investment, and reduce the economic pressure on the county party committee, county government, and Liukeng Village through tourism economic benefits. After the inspection, I suggested to the Fuzhou Cultural Bureau and the Le'an County Party Committee: strengthen the environmental management and investment environment construction of Congliukeng Village; at the same time, strengthen the protection of cultural relics.
After returning to Beijing, I immediately organized cultural publicity for Liukeng Village, and personally wrote articles in "Geographic Knowledge Magazine", "Relics World Magazine", "China Environment News", "China Light Industry News", "China Surveying and Mapping News" ", "China Construction"Set News", "Unity News", "Chinese Cultural Relics Newsletter", "Oriental Dragon" and many other newspapers and magazines launched a propaganda offensive, and the propaganda of Liukeng Ancient Village was known at home and abroad. Yin Guangcan, the deputy secretary of the Le'an County Party Committee of the Communist Party of China, is a photography enthusiast. He made a set of propaganda films about the cultural relics and ancient buildings of Liukeng Ancient Village, printed and bound them into books, and distributed them to the heads and experts. This album is full of pictures and texts. All the viewers were moved by it, and they all went to Liukeng Village to visit, which made Liukeng Village boil again, and the maximum number of people who received daily competition was more than 300 people. Japanese travel agencies have also come across the sea, taking Liukeng Ancient Village as a key tourism project for their travel agencies. On May 25, Zhang Wenbin, director of the State Administration of Cultural Heritage, during a meeting in Nanchang, listened to the report of Yin Guangcan, deputy head of the Liukeng Cultural Relics Leading Group in Le'an County, and instructed: "I know about Liukeng, and the central leadership also know, and instructed. Recently, the State Administration of Cultural Heritage has issued a special document on the protection of Liukeng ancient culture. The affairs of Liukeng should be handled in stages, first in the province, and then reported to the country; the county should formulate policies, regulations and regulations as soon as possible, and especially pay attention to improving the quality of life of the masses. Conservation awareness. In the specific protection work, it is necessary to pay attention to maintaining the original appearance, so that the old is as old as the old, and it is kept simple, which is valuable and attractive. ” Director Zhang Wenbin visited Liukeng Ancient Village accompanied by leaders at all levels of the province, prefecture, city and county, and wrote the five characters "China First Village" before leaving, which comprehensively included the cultural taste and social value of Liukeng Village , historical value, cultural relic value in the leading position in the country's natural villages.
(3) Once you become famous, you will win the gold medal.
In November 1997, under the policy guidance of the State Administration of Cultural Heritage, the Jiangxi Provincial Department of Culture, the Cultural Relics Bureau, the Museum, the Institute of Cultural Relics and Archaeology, the Fuzhou Cultural Bureau, and the Le'an County Cultural Bureau made important efforts to protect and appraise the cultural relics of Liukeng Ancient Village. After much work and investigation, the Jiangxi Provincial Bureau of Cultural Relics officially approved "Liukeng Village" as a key cultural relics protection unit in Jiangxi Province, and formulated cultural protection policies, regulations and regulations for Liukeng Village, and reported to the State Administration of Cultural Heritage that "national cultural relics" "Key cultural relics protection units". In order to win Liukeng Village's early approval from the national key cultural relics protection unit, I accompanied Liu Huixiang, director of the Fuzhou Cultural Bureau, and Yin Guangcan, deputy secretary of the Communist Party of China's Le'an County Committee, to visit Professor Luo Zhewen, the president of our association. I suggested to hire Professor Luo Zhewen as a cultural relics consultant. Deputy Secretary Yin Guangcan agreed immediately. On behalf of the Liukeng Cultural Relics Protection Team of Le'an County, Professor Luo Zhewen and I were invited as consultants for the Liukeng Cultural Relics Protection Team.
Minister Zhou Luanshu, who has retired to the second line, is not old. He has organized a large number of experts to research the history of the Dong family in Liukeng Village, as well as the age and scale of the ancient construction of Liukeng Village. Classification, compiled a "one village through the ages", officially published under the strong support of Jiangxi People's Publishing House. Jiangxi Provincial TV Station followed up and organized manpower and material resources to film the first and second episodes of the TV documentary "Still Good Liukeng", using documentary writing to show the ancient village style of Liukeng from different aspects. On New Year's Day in 1998, "Still Good Flowing Pit" was officially broadcast, and it was broadcast by dozens of TV stations in provinces, municipalities and autonomous regions across the country, which immediately caused a sensation at home and abroad. The Millennium Ancient Village of Liukeng has won honors for its hometown and won the first place in several national cultural relic indicators, and won the gold medal for Jiangxi. In order to make Liukeng Ancient Village play a role in promoting the development of tourism economy in Le'an County, Le'an County Party Committee and County Government allocated huge sums of money to build a road from Le'an County to Liukeng Village, which is expected to be completed and opened to traffic by the end of 1998.
On February 2, 1998, Governor Shu Shengyou of Jiangxi Province, accompanied by Xu Junru, Commissioner of Fuzhou Administrative Office and other district and county leaders, made a special trip to Liukeng Village in the heavy rain for an on-site inspection. After careful and detailed inspection, he pointed out: "The construction of spiritual civilization must have a solid material foundation, Liukeng culture must be protected and developed, and the first is to develop production, develop the economy, and make everyone rich. ” And held the "Coordination Meeting on Rescue and Protection of Ancient Cultural Heritage of Liukeng Village, Le'an County". According to the instructions of Governor Shu Shengyou and the spirit of the provincial coordination meeting, the Fuzhou Administrative Office held a commissioner's office meeting and formulated the "Goal Management Plan for the Rescue and Protection of the Ancient Cultural Heritage Project of Liukeng Village, Le'an County" issued by the relevant departments of the place and county. The Fuzhou Administrative Office's management plan has made proper arrangements for the reconstruction, governance and protection projects of Liukeng Village, and ordered all departments to ensure the completion of the predetermined plan and project funds. In order to support the restoration and protection of Liukeng Village, the State Administration of Cultural Heritage allocated a planning fee of 50,000 yuan; the Jiangxi Provincial Patriotic Sanitation Movement Committee allocated 50,000 yuan for water and toilet improvements; and the Jiangxi Provincial Department of Construction allocated a planning fee of 20,000 yuan; Patriotic Health Campaign Committee of Fuzhou Region pays the cost of changing the water and toilet in the diversion pit. 50,000 yuan. In late March, Li Qiusheng, Secretary of the Communist Party of China's Le'an County Party Committee, personally presided over the "Working Conference on the Promotion, Protection and Utilization of Liukeng Ancient Culture". The meeting decided to set up an economic group, an environmental sanitation group, a Longhu governance group, a public security duty group and a post and telecommunications group6. A group led by Secretary Li Qiusheng and Chairman Yin Guangcan of the County Political Consultative Conference went to Liukeng Village to help Liukeng Village Committee develop the collective economy and guide the villagers to get rich. With the close cooperation of the cadres and the masses, Liukeng Village has planted more than 10 mu of moso bamboo and clumping bamboo in Huangzhou and Wujiang River; and installed 92 telephone poles from Le'an County to Liukeng, which opened in August. Liukeng telephone line. At the same time, two beautiful toilets were built in Liukeng Village, and the chicken and pig pens in the village were relocated to outside Liukeng Village, which tidy the village and created an environment for tourism development; the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences also The village is included in the economic and social survey of China's Hundred Villages.
Tang Sheng was a guest at Liukeng Village's home
Since Liukeng Village was discovered by the society, it has been highly valued by the leaders from the central government to the local government. It was a miracle in the history of Chinese cultural relics protection that a group of cultural relics dealers who came here especially were captured and attacked. Cultural relics protection has come before the development of cultural relics. Finally, I sincerely wish Liukeng Ancient Village can win glory for the motherland, win glory for the Chinese nation, and work hard to become a national key cultural relic protection unit and a world cultural heritage at an early date.