Liukeng Ancient Village, Le'an County, on August 7, 1997, the director of the State Administration of Cultural Heritage Xinran wrote an inscription "The First Village of the Ages"; on August 22, 1997, the Jiangxi Provincial People's Government specially approved Jiangxi Province's historical and cultural protection On June 25, 2001, it was listed as a national key cultural relics protection unit by the State Council; on November 28, 2003, it was announced as the first batch of famous historical and cultural villages in China by the Ministry of Construction and the Cultural Relics Bureau. In December 2012, it was announced as the first batch of traditional Chinese villages in the country.
1. Geographical location
Liukeng Village, also known as Liuxi Village and Yaoshi Village, is located in Niutian Town, southwest of Le'an County, in the central part of Jiangxi Province, 37 kilometers away from the county seat. Surrounded by green mountains and surrounded by Wujiang Rivers on three sides, the mountains and rivers are beautiful in shape, and the Zhongling is beautiful. The village has more than 1,200 households with more than 6,000 people. In 2011, the per capita net income of farmers was 1,400 yuan, and the village area was 3.61 square kilometers.
In the history of Liukeng, there were Dong, Zeng, Liu, He and other surnames, but the surname Dong was the most popular. Liukeng Dong respected Dong Zhongshu, a great scholar of the Western Han Dynasty, as his distant ancestor, and his near ancestor as Tang Prime Minister Dong Jin. Dong Jin Sun Dong Qingran avoided the war and lived in Linchuan to expand the source (now Huangshan Temple in Yihuang County). During the Shengyuan reign of the Southern Tang Dynasty (937-942 AD), Dong Qingran's great-grandson Dong He moved to Liukeng in Yungai Township, Luling County, Jizhou. In the first year of Zhihe in the Northern Song Dynasty (AD 1054), Yongfeng County was established, and Yungai Township was placed under Yongfeng County; in the nineteenth year of Shaoxing (AD 1149), Le'an County was established and placed under Le'an County.
The ancient building complex of Liukeng Village was announced as a national key cultural relic protection unit on June 25, 2001, covering an area of 478,000 square meters, and the core protection area of the ancient village is 176,000 square meters. There are 30 ancient buildings in the national key protection units, and 3 other sites are county-level cultural relics protection units; there are 201 historical buildings and 165 historical buildings in the core protection area. There are more than 260 ancient buildings and relics in Ming and Qing Dynasties in the village, including 19 buildings and relics in Ming Dynasty. There are 18 important building groups, 14 cultural buildings such as academies, 5 archways, 48 ancestral halls, 8 temples, and 32 ancient wells, wind and rain pavilions, docks, ancient bridges, ancient tombs, ancient pagoda sites, etc. There are more than 400 intact plaques, more than 70 couplets, more than 160 ancient camphor trees over 200 years old, and one osmanthus tree in the Ming Dynasty.
There are seven east-west and one north-south lanes in Liukeng Ancient Village, namely Long Lane, Zhong Lane, Xianbo Lane, Mingjing Lane, Weishang Lane, Chuangjia Lane, Shang Lane and Heng Lane. 2910 meters, forming a "one vertical and seven horizontal" comb-shaped overall layout, separated by Longhu Lake in the middle. Each lane is directly facing the bank of the Wujiang River, and a wharf is built, which is not only convenient for traffic, but also conducive to the river wind entering the village to adjust the temperature. There are gates and watchtowers at the beginning and end of the alley, which are used for defense. There is a set of very scientific environmental protection drainage system underground in the whole village, which is still effective. The village is surrounded by water on three sides and a mountain on the other side. There is a gatehouse guarding the village wall, which is like a small city with complete functions.
Liukeng Ancient Village has intangible cultural heritage such as Nuo dance, wandering spirits, rural archery, bamboo weaving, embroidery, carving and other intangible cultural heritages. Nuo dance was listed on the national intangible cultural heritage list on May 20, 2006. On May 27, 2008, Shooting Legacy Music was listed as a provincial intangible cultural heritage list.
Four, value features
The Liukeng ancient building group is complete and basically well-preserved. The streets and alleys are still traditional, with high historical value, humanistic value and architectural art value. The architectural decoration is very particular. It integrates wood, brick, stone carving (carving), color painting and ink painting. It is simple and concise, with bright style and exquisite craftsmanship. Since the establishment of the village in the Southern Tang Dynasty in the Five Dynasties, the prosperity of imperial examinations, the number of officials, the honor of titles, the wealth of business, the comprehensiveness of architecture, the beauty of art, the greatness of the family, and the long continuance are unique in Jiangxi and rare in the country. of. Liukeng Village is a microcosm of China's feudal patriarchal society and enjoys a high reputation in the province and even the whole country. Liukeng is famous for its large-scale traditional buildings and unique village layout. Various ancient buildings in the village have strong local characteristics, representing the typical style and characteristics of Jiangxi Gan-style dwellings.
V. Management Organization
The county party committee and county government have always attached great importance to the protection and development of Liukeng Ancient Village, and have taken a series of practical and effective measures to protect Liukeng Ancient Village and promote tourism development. In 1997, the Liukeng Cultural Relics Administration managed by the county cultural department was established, and in 2005, it was changed to an independent Liukeng Administration, in charge of Liukeng cultural relics protection and tourism development. The tourism reception capacity of Liukeng needs to be improved urgently. At present, only the ticket management station is used as the head to carry out tourism in ancient villages; restaurants and hotels are mainly villagers' housing, and the facilities are poor.
Six, cultural relics protection
In recent years, with the strong support of the national, provincial and municipal cultural relics departments, the Le'an County Party Committee, the County Government and the Liukeng Administration have been following the policy of "protection first, rescue first, rational utilization, and enhanced management" , adhere to both protection and development, adhere to scientific development and sustainable development, and take a number of measures to protect Liukeng Ancient Village and promote tourism development.
First, do a good job in reporting. In 2001, Liukeng Ancient Building Complex was listed as a national key cultural relics protection unit. In 2003, it was listed as one of the first batch of famous historical and cultural villages in China. . The second is to do a good job in the daily protection of cultural relics. An ancient village protection team was established to strengthen the daily maintenance and fire prevention and theft prevention of the ancient buildings in Liukeng, formulate systems and measures for fire protection and safety of cultural relics, and implement them to the relevant responsible persons. The third is to do a good job in the maintenance of ancient buildings. Strive for special funds for the maintenance of national cultural relics, arrange county financial funds and Liukeng tourism ticket revenue funds, and successively visited Wenguan, Mige School Book Temple, Mingzhai Shengwu Temple, Yingsudi, Li Mingjia Residence, Zhuangyuan Building, etc. 20 endangered ancient buildings have been protected and repaired. In the first half of this year, 90 ancient buildings (about 28,800 square meters) were controlled for termites; the red stone lions in the cultural hall were covered to protect; the cultural relics in the exhibition hall were rearranged, the calligraphy and paintings were framed, the plaques were redone, and the monitoring system was about to be installed. The fourth is to do a good job in preventing illegal housing construction.
Seven, remediation of the environment
The first is to rectify Longhu Lake. From 2003 to 2006, a capital of 6.01 million yuan was invested in the renovation of Longhu Lake in the village in three years, and the living water of the ancient village was restored, which greatly changed the environment of the ancient village of Liukeng. The second is to improve the environment. From 2007 to 2010, it invested 5.7 million yuan to lay bluestone slabs or cobblestones on the roads around the village and alleys in the village, build drainage ditches, and build new tourist toilets; road reconstruction, circuit reconstruction, fire protection facilities, sanitation facilities, Construction of sewage pipe network; equipped with fire-fighting facilities and equipment such as portable fire extinguishers, spray pumps, fire hoses, purchased trash cans (boxes), garbage collection vehicles and transfer vehicles, built new garbage transfer stations and simple garbage landfills, and strengthened the The environmental sanitation renovation of the ancient village was carried out. The third is to strengthen the health management of ancient villages. A strict and specific management system has been established, the sanitation responsibility of each lane is assigned to the household and the individual, livestock and poultry are kept in captivity, public toilets are renovated, and parking spaces are designated for parking lots. The fourth is to speed up the renovation and upgrading of scenic highways. Liukeng Administration, together with the County Transportation Bureau, completed the road survey and design, which will be put into practice soon. The fifth is to reset the ticket price of the scenic spot. Cooperate with the County Price Bureau to do a good job in the pricing of tickets for Liukeng Scenic Area, and raise the ticket price to 50 yuan per ticket. The infrastructure conditions have been improved, and the ancient village style and elegant environment have been completely protected.
Eight. New Village Planning
In the first half of 2012, "Le'an County Liukeng Historical and Cultural Village Protection Plan (2011-2030)" and "Liukeng Tourism New Village Planning and Design Plan" were completed and put into practice.
In order to relieve the housing pressure of the villagers in the ancient village, prevent the villagers from building houses in the ancient village, and better protect the ancient village, a combination of dredging and blocking has been adopted. The new village land leveling, road hardening, wire erection, drainage ditches, retaining walls, running water and other infrastructure have been constructed and gradually improved, and more than 410 villagers have been resettled. The new county party committee and county government attach great importance to the protection and development of Liukeng ancient village, take the battle of tourism as one of the county's "five strategies", and reconfigure the new Liukeng management team. In April 2012, on the basis of the new village planning, it was revised to improve the level and style of the planning. 600 mu of land was acquired in the west of Longgang in the north of the village, and a Xinliu pit with "one vertical and seven horizontal" was constructed. The land acquisition is nearing completion.
Nine, tourism development
First, the Liukeng Tourism Ticket Management Station was established. Composed of 48 people, including ticket management, pavilion guards, explanations, sanitation centers, and Nuo dance troupes, the scenic spot sanitation and tour guide management systems have been formulated, the scenic spot management methods have been standardized, and the tourism image of Liukeng Ancient Village has been improved. The second is to do a good job in the tourism reception of tourists and the inspection and guidance of experts and leaders at all levels. The third is to make good use of tourism income according to the actual situation. Except for the wages of management personnel, sanitation workers and Nuo dance troupe personnel, the rest of the income is used for the maintenance of simple cultural relics in Liukeng. , Ticket printing, attraction rental, tourism promotion, etc.
X. Status of the base
Liukeng Ancient Village has been listed as a training base by many colleges and universities and film and television units, and it is an excellent patriotic education base. The main places to visit are: Liukeng Cultural Relics Exhibition Hall (2005), Wenguan and the ruins of the Great Ancestral Hall (2005), and the ancient stage (traditional venue). The exhibition hall mainly focuses on more than 100 cultural relics collected by villagers, Dong Biwu's life picture exhibition, and introduction of outstanding figures in Liukeng. The ancient stage is mainly a performance place for intangible cultural heritage Nuo dance and rural archery. The above sites invested about 500,000 yuan.
The ancient village scenic spot receives about 10,000 tourists every year, and the average annual ticket revenue is about 300,000 yuan. Open for free on holidays. 8 full-time lecturers.
Eleven. Problems and Difficulties
Liukeng Ancient Village has been open to the public since 1997. The development time was the earliest, but the development depth, scale and grade were not in place, mainly due to the lack of investment, the poor sense of cooperation among the villagers, and the difficulty of work. Since last year, under the high-level promotion of the city and county governments, a new development basket of ancient villages is being planned.