I. Brief Overview
Liukeng Ancient Village is located on the bank of the Wujiang River, a tributary of the Ganjiang River in the southwest of Le'an County, Jiangxi Province. It is 37 kilometers away from the county seat and has a village area of 3.61 square kilometers. There are nearly 1,200 households with more than 6,000 people, mainly for the Dong clan. This is a large village with a glorious history after thousands of years of vicissitudes.
The distant ancestors of the Liukeng Dong clan can be traced back to Dong Zhongshu, a great scholar in the Western Han Dynasty, and their recent ancestors were linked to Dong Jin, the prime minister of Tang Dezong. At the end of the Tang Dynasty, to avoid the war, Dong Qingran, a descendant of Dong Jin, moved to Kuoyuan, Linchuan (now in Yihuang County, Jiangxi). During the Shengyuan period of the Southern Tang Dynasty of the Five Dynasties (937-942), Dong Qingran's great-grandson Dong He moved from Kuoyuan to Liukeng. At that time, Liukeng was still under the jurisdiction of Luling County, Jizhou. After the county was established in Le'an in the 19th year of Shaoxing in the Southern Song Dynasty (1149), Liukeng Village was under the jurisdiction of Le'an County, Fuzhou.
Liukeng Village has a distant view of the green hills and arches, and is near the clear Wujiang River in the upper reaches of the Enjiang River. The ancient trees on the river bank around the ancient village are towering, and the beautiful bamboos are swaying green, forming a beautiful environment surrounded by mountains and water. The main body of Liukeng village basically preserves the regular pattern of Ming Jiajing and Wanli years. It is framed by a "seven vertical and one horizontal" large alleyway, which is connected by many alleys. There are watchtowers at the beginning and end of the main alleys. Open early and close late to strengthen defense. Seven vertical alleys face the river bank, echoing with the wharf, which facilitates the introduction of river breeze into the village and ensures fresh air. The drainage system in the village is complete. Natural water and domestic water are fed into Longhu Lake, and then introduced into the Wujiang River outside the village for natural sewage discharge. In addition to the main layout, ancestral halls, temples, streets, attics, tree arches, village walls, and forests are built according to the topography and features, making Liukeng look like a city. The scientific nature of its planning is admired by contemporary architectural experts.
The Dong family relied on the soil and water to cultivate meticulously. At the same time, he promoted education and promoted his children to study—the imperial examination—the road to officialdom. The Song Dynasty reached the most glorious period of the imperial officialdom, and his name was well-known in all directions. In the Yuan Dynasty, it declined due to repeated military disasters. In the Ming Dynasty, the Dong clan became prominent again for the revival of civil servants and the completeness and power of clan management, and a group of clan members also became scholars of Jiangyou Wangmen who practiced themselves. In the Qing Dynasty, although the business was sluggish, the commercial economy developed, especially the development of wood and bamboo trade showed another flourishing scene. During the late Qing Dynasty and the Republic of China, Liukeng gradually declined.
From the Song Dynasty to the Qing Dynasty, there were 34 Jinshi people and nearly 100 people in the village. There have been two champions in civil and military affairs, one five Jinshi in the same year, six fathers and sons, and seven brothers held together. There are more than 100 officials and officials, ranging from prime ministers and ministers to magistrates and county magistrates, and more than 300 people who have gained fame. There are also many talents in education, science, literature, art, medicine, business, etc., and have extensive contacts with external celebrities.
There are 260 ancient buildings in the Ming and Qing Dynasties in the village, and the types are relatively complete, mainly including residences, ancestral halls, academies, theaters, shops, archways, pavilions, temples, etc. The ancient buildings of Liukeng are huge in size and well-organized, with blue bricks and gray tiles, and high walls. There are long streets and deep alleys in the village, criss-crossing; sculptures and paintings are dazzling; plaques and couplets can be seen in the eye; documents and antiquities are colorful;
The Liukeng family is large and has lasted for a long time, the imperial examinations are prosperous, the number of officials, the noble titles, the wealth of business, the many ancient buildings, the beauty of art is hard to find in Jiangxi, and it is very rare in the country. In August 1997, Zhang Wenbin, the former director of the State Administration of Cultural Heritage, wrote a book for Liukeng "The First Village of the Ages". The first batch of famous historical and cultural villages in China" was rated as one of the "Top Ten Characteristic Sceneries in Jiangxi" in 2006. In October 2012, Liukeng Ancient Village was rated as "the first batch of traditional Chinese villages", in April 2013, it was listed as a "provincial scenic spot" by the Jiangxi Provincial People's Government, and in January 2014, it was rated as "the first batch of traditional Chinese villages". National 3A-level tourist attraction", was rated as "Jiangxi Top Ten Cultural Ancient Towns (Village)" in November 2014, and was rated as "National 4A-level tourist attraction" in February 2016.
Third, the splendid history and culture
1. Imperial Exam Culture
The Song Dynasty was one of the most glorious periods in the history of Liukeng. At that time, there were "one five-scholarly scholar, four ministers in two dynasties, two champions in civil and military affairs, and scholars like stars" and "Ou Dong (Liukeng Dong) famous town".
The imperial examinations prospered, making Liukeng Dong's official official in the Northern Song Dynasty like clouds. For example, the fourth generation of the Dong family, Dong Chun and the second generation, tired officials of Nanhai County, Chizhou to observe and push officials, the imperial court servants, the Shangshu Tuentian Yuanwailang, the gifted prince Taibao of Zhishiguan, Dong Yuan’s official Fangzhong, and Dong Zhuo’s officials to observe and push officials. , Dong Qi observes and pushes officials, Guanglu Temple minister, Dong Zhu Guanglu doctor, Dong Ting county magistrate; the fifth generation Dong Yi knows Yunzhou, Shangshu Zuo Silangzhong, Guangdong sentenced, Dong Li's secretary, the Ministry of Punishment detailed repression officials, Dong Fu craftsman Supervisor Bo, Secretary Dong Ji, provincial school secretary, Dong Shide, Chizhou push official, Dong Shidao staff member, and so on. Since then, the number of people who have entered the official position due to Jinshi, special title, recommendation and grace, etc. is more, and cannot be listed in detail. Wu Cheng, a Dali scholar in the Yuan Dynasty, said in the preface to the Liukeng Dong family tree, that the Dong family in the Song Dynasty "was a lot of officials, and they were not good friends", although they were beautiful, they were close to the truth. The Northern Song Dynasty was undoubtedly the golden age of the Dong family in Liukeng, as far as the imperial examinations and officials were concerned. Mei Shengyu, a famous poet in Song Dynasty, once praised in the poem "Sending a Question to Luling Dong's Guilin Study": "Taste the clouds and gather books to become rich. Often see children and grandchildren, the fate of heaven and stars. The stars are like beads, and the brilliance leaks out of the house. In autumn, ten thousand hectares of fields are harvested, and wine is made for longevity. There are also thousands of miles to return, and the brocade is like the day. ”Since the Five Dynasties, the Liukeng Dong family has achieved the glory of the official family with poetry and calligraphy. In the first year of the Northern Song Dynasty (1054), Jizhou was divided into Yongfeng County, and Yungai Township belonged to it. Because Yongfeng has Ouyang Xiu and Dong's family, it is called "Ou Dong famous hometown". The Dong family in Yungai Township was not only a local surname, but also known all over the world.
In the eighteenth year of Shaoxing, Emperor Gaozong of the Southern Song Dynasty (1149), due to the difficult terrain of Le'an, the court cut off the three townships of Chongren Tianshou, Le'an, Zhongyi and Yungai Township of Yongfeng to establish Le'an County, which was subordinate to Fuzhou. Twenty-four years (1155) were restored, and thirty-one years (1162) were reformed. Since then, Liukeng Dong has always been a citizen of Le'an County, and has not changed. Despite this change, Liukeng has always maintained close economic and cultural ties with Yongfeng and Jizhou due to historical origins and the tie of the Enjiang River system, which has a common origin. Much is still the same. This point has had an important impact on the later history of the convection pit. In the Southern Song Dynasty, especially in Liukeng after the county of Le resettlement, the imperial examinations were not as good as those of the Northern Song Dynasty. However, the Dong family still retains its diligence, diligence and frugality, the true character of a family of non-commissioned officers in poetry and literature. Dong Deyuan, the only "Zhuang Yuangong" and the highest official in the history of Liukeng, came from this era, especially the family.
Due to ethnic conflicts and social turmoil, and the fact that the imperial examination system in the Yuan Dynasty was not implemented for a long time, the number of subjects and the amount of admission were few, and there were especially many restrictions on southerners. 1 person, 2 people for recommendation, 2 people for military merit. The prosperous and prosperous official family of the Dong family in the past suddenly dimmed in the Yuan Dynasty.
When talking about the history of Liukeng in the Yuan Dynasty, one cannot fail to mention a great Confucian—the Neo-Confucianist Wu Cheng. Wu Cheng was a great scholar of the Yuan Dynasty. He wrote a lot in his life, and his disciples are like clouds, and there are not too many children of Liukeng Dong. As a result, Wu Cheng became attached to Liukeng Dong, so he left a lot of writing for Dong in the Complete Works of Wu Wenzheng. Among Wu's disciples, Dong Fangda was highly appreciated by Wu Cheng. Fangda was selected in the township examination in the third year of Emperor Yingzong's reign and was admitted to Zonglian Academy on Changlongxing Road. Wu Cheng also wrote a preface to the Dong family tree completed during the Zhishun period, and praised the Dong family a lot. Under the prominent family, when it comes to the historical officials and their later descendants, Changyan, the Dong family is still above all the clans. To a large extent, it was because of Wu Cheng's relationship that the Dong clan gradually changed their negative attitude towards the Mongolian and Yuan regime, and began to be enthusiastic about the imperial examinations and career advancement again. There is another reason for Wu Cheng's reputation for Dong's family, that is, Dong Qiqian, a famous doctor in Liukeng, has the power to cure diseases.
The Dong family, famous for their scholarly officialdom, has been actively involved in Zhu Ming's regime since the very beginning, contrary to the long-term passivity and silence of the Yuan Dynasty. In the first year of Hongwu (1368), there were Dong Cunxing, Zixing, Chengxing and Dong Gui in the Dong clan who served as military officials. He was recruited to the capital, and he was appointed to the Zhaohua Order of Baoning in Sichuan Province. He was elected as a state official, and Dong Shang chose to teach him. Dong Shang chose to teach Xingning. The case of re-opening Dong's Dengke. Since then, Liukeng has been released from time to time by means of system, regular and other means, and "the Dong family has gradually become more prosperous", and the Dong family has entered the second peak of political prestige and clan in its history. development period. The revival and improvement of Liukeng's imperial examination and political status led to the improvement and development of the Dong family organization in Liukeng.
2. Business culture
Looking at the Liukeng in the early Qing Dynasty, it can be said that it continued the trend of changes that had been seen in the middle and late Ming Dynasty. A very significant development, which further led to new developments and changes in the Liukeng Dong clan organization and other aspects.
For seven hundred years, it has been the imperial examination for the glory of the Dong family in Liukeng and the foundation of the clan. In the Qing Dynasty, the rivers and rivers were as follows, and there was nothing good to say. In the more than 260 years of the Qing Dynasty, the family has never produced a Jinshi. The lack of people in the imperial examinations also meant that the officials were not prosperous. According to the materials at hand, the Liukeng Dong family in the Qing Dynasty had only a dozen or so people who went out of office on the right track, and most of them were small officials of the eighth rank or below, such as teaching and teaching. At this time, the Liukeng Dong clan was no longer politically comparable to the Zhan, Wang, You, He, Ding and other big families in the county, and finally changed from a giant family of officials and officials to a commoner clan in the countryside.
Contrary to the decline of imperial officials, the social economy of Liukeng, especially the bamboo and wood trade that gradually emerged in the late Ming Dynasty, entered its golden age in the early Qing Dynasty.
During this period, due to the surge in population, the contradiction between more people and less land in Liukeng since the late Ming Dynasty was further exacerbated. In addition, the cultivated land in mountainous areas was difficult to reclaim, and it was difficult for tenant farmers to recover the right to use the land (the development of permanent tenant rights). And since the early Qing Dynasty, the further traction of the commodity economy development in the entire middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River has made the part of the Liukeng economy connected with the commodity economy further expanded. The proportion of commercial crops in the field of agricultural production has greatly increased, sugarcane, indigo, ramie, tobacco, etc. have begun to be planted on a large scale, while the planting area of traditional rice and other grains has been repeatedly reduced. This made Liukeng people, who had difficulty in self-sufficiency in food, began to rely more and more on imported food.
Under the influence of the same factors, the bamboo and wood trade in Liukeng in the early Qing Dynasty was unprecedentedly prosperous. A large number of people engaged in the bamboo and wood business of the Dong family emerged, and each house was crowded. It was no longer limited to some families along the river in the late Ming Dynasty. At that time, there were dozens of wealthy wood merchants in the village, and their personal capital could reach about 1,000 taels or more. Dong's bamboo and wood management, from Jinzhu in the upper reaches of the Wujiang River, and the original bamboo logs, which are sold or traded from the platoons to Sanhu, Zhangshu, Nanchang, Wucheng and other ports along the Ganjiang River. Nanjing, Yangzhou, Changzhou and other places reaching the lower reaches of the Yangtze River became part of the business activities of the famous "Jiangyou Gang" in the Qing Dynasty. On the Wujiang River, which was wider than today, next to Liukeng Village at that time, hundreds of rows blocked the river and rushed down, creating a busy scene. The three stone piers with a width of more than 10 meters and a height of more than 20 steps that still remain on the riverside are the silent evidence left at that time. It is worth noting that the bamboo and wood trade in the upper reaches of the Wujiang River was monopolized by the Liukeng Dong family in the early Qing Dynasty. Many bamboo and wood resources in the upper reaches of the Wujiang River belong to the public properties of Dong's houses, and Liukeng is suitable for the Wujiang River from the turbulent narrow to the wider and gentler, which is conducive to the development of the Dong's bamboo and wood trade in Liukeng. However, the most important reason why the Liukeng Dong merchants were able to control the Wujiang bamboo and wood trade was that they used the power of their clan to control the Wujiang River by virtue of geographical convenience, so that his surname could not get involved and obtain benefits. Combined with this kind of clan monopoly, around the early Qing Dynasty, there was an industry organization for bamboo and wood trade in Liukeng—the Mugang Club.
The outstanding development of bamboo and wood trade had a profound and significant impact on Liukeng society in the Qing Dynasty. Since the Song Dynasty, the rulers of Liukeng society for six or seven hundred years have always been the rank officials and the landlords, who followed the path of the imperial examinations and the eunuchs. However, until the Qing Dynasty, the imperial examinations were so inactive, and the Dong family in Liukeng had more businessmen and obtained a lot of wealth from the Wujiang River, which was flowing westward. Therefore, no matter in terms of number, economy or even political status, merchants were all It has come from behind, and it is very important. Therefore, the history of Liukeng in the Qing Dynasty seems to be the history of merchants in a certain sense.
3. Architectural Culture
Liukeng Village is a clan living settlement formed by blood as a link. The whole village spreads out along the Wujiang River. Seven east-west lanes are arranged perpendicular to the Wujiang River, and it is connected with a north-south vertical lane next to the West Dragon Lake in the village, forming a pattern of seven horizontal and one vertical streets. The layout of the village not only reflects the patriarchal organizational relationship of blood villages, but also reflects the planning thought of the layout of streets and alleys in the city construction at that time. There are a large number of ancient buildings in Liukeng, complete types and large scales. A number of houses of the Ming Dynasty and the early Qing Dynasty with exact ages and with the traditional style of central Jiangxi have been preserved. According to preliminary investigation and statistics, the types and quantities are roughly as follows: more than 150 houses, 62 ancestral halls, 1 academy, 10 pavilions, 6 archways (excluding general gates), one stage, and 11 temples And more than 20 shops and so on. There are also pavilions, arch bridges, tombs, ancientPagoda ruins, village wall foundations, wharfs (places), ancient wells (7 places) and flagpole stones (30 pieces), etc.
4. Folk Culture
(1), Liukeng's "playing joy"
"Playing joy" is to dance the Nuo dance. There are 36 Nuo noodles in Liukeng, also known as "theatrical surface", which are very lively to dance. In 1957, he also participated in theatrical performances in Fuzhou, and he also claimed to be one of the factions in Le'an.
The existing inscriptions in the Gongchen Gate of the Republic of China are also known as:
To the north of the village is the Household Branch of Yinming, whose descendants are Fanyan, who have lived there for more than ten generations. In the vacant place at the entrance of the village, there are enemy towers, and there are more than a hundred statues of emperors, generals, and Nuo gods in the Han Dynasty.
It can be seen that Nuo masks are usually hung in the temple (or "door"), and together with other gods, they enjoy incense worship. The villagers recalled that in the past, the Nuo masks in the temples (gates) were all of the same format, each with more than 30 masks. At present, there is only one complete set in the whole village, which is placed on the ancient stage, with a total of thirty-six sets. The names are as follows:
Zhong Kui, Tian Guan, Ling Guan, Yuan Huang, Marshal Ma, Marshal Zhu, Marshal Wen, Nezha, King Kong, Kuixing, Duke Zhao (God of Wealth), Little Gui, Zhenwu, Sanguan, Hehe (Two Immortals), Duke Zhou , Peach Blossom Girl, Scholar, Seven Fairies, Land, Big Monk, Little Monk, Paobao, Liu Bei, Guan Gong, Zhang Fei, Kong Ming, Zhao Yun, Cai Yang, Monkey King, Zhu Bajie, Sha Monk.
This set of Nuo noodles was re-engraved after the "Cultural Revolution" and is about the size of a human face. The wooden wall is thick, and the two ears are tied with ropes. During the performance, it is worn on the face, and the face and face are all covered, so it is impossible to sing aloud, and there is no drama at all. Nuo face is colored, and some are like ordinary people's skin color, such as scholars, peach blossom girls, monks, "land" and so on. Some have indigo faces and red eyebrows, such as several "marshals". "Guan Gong" has a red face and silkworm eyes, and "Monkey King" is a monkey and has a strong dramatic color. These all show some kind of transplantation or simplification of traditional drama.
(2), Xiangshe legacy music. It is now a provincial intangible cultural heritage, also known as "Palace Small Blowing Club". According to the records of the village history, during the Wanli period of Ming Dynasty, Dong Yu, who was the minister of punishment at the time, selected a group of children from the clan to study the music of "Xiao Chuhui" in the court band, and then brought them back to the village to teach them, which was regarded by the local people as A testament to the glorious history of the village.
"Liukeng Xiaochuhui" has its own unique performance form. Every year from the 2nd to the 15th day of the first lunar month, all the members of the music troupe wear top hats and long robes and jackets to perform grandly on the ancient stage in the village. In normal times, whenever there is a large-scale sacrificial event or a happy event in the village, the members of the music class must be neatly dressed, and guided by two high-footed jacquard lanterns, they will play all the way to the performance venue, and the class leader will announce loudly Celebrating the names of people or the content of the sacrificial activities, and then playing different tunes according to different occasions, the atmosphere is solemn and warm.
"Liukeng Xiaochuhui" originated from the royal family, with an elegant style and a pleasant sound. The main musical instruments are: Erhu, Sanxian, Pipa, Dizi, Sheng, Xiao, Suona, Banhu, Yueqin, Gong and Drum, etc. The main songs played are: "Chaotianzi", "Wind into the Pine", "Langtaosha" and other elegant court music, and later also incorporated into "Mapo Zi", "Wu Geng Love Lang" ” and some other folk minor tunes, both refined and popular, make the performance richer and more lively.
According to the analysis of relevant experts, “the ancient court music was originally divided into “Dachuhui”” and “Xiaochuhui”. ;, Xiaoquhui is entertainment music, also known as "Yanle". It is mainly played in banquets or entertainment occasions. Liukeng Xiaochuhui has completely preserved the essence of Chinese classical music from the name of its music, the style and the instruments used by the band.
(3), He Yangshen (Wandering God)
In various temples in Liukeng, most of the god He Yang, who looks like a scholar, is placed with other gods to accept sacrifices from generations of Liukeng people, and a grand outing is held on the ninth day of the first lunar month every year. This is one of the sacrificial and folk entertainment activities that have lasted for hundreds of years in Liukeng. Its organization is the responsibility of the rotating house, and its expenses are paid from the house's premises.
Every year on the ninth day of the first lunar month, a man in the rotating room who was married in that year held He Yangshen in his hand and walked through every household in the village in order to show that the wandering activity was about to start, and each household had to do a good job of picking up the god. Preparation: and put a table in front of the door, with lamps, candles, rice and red candles on it. At the beginning of the wandering gods, firecrackers and guns blared in unison, and the gongs and drums were noisy. First, a number of ministers were sent to each household to register their household names, and the rice and candles were accepted. Then came a large group of people, carrying God He Yang and the many statues that traveled with him, candles and incense sticks on the shrine frame, and many people accompanied with various lanterns and colorful flags. The wandering spirit team has to travel to every household in the village, up to late night, or even all night long.
(4), Lantern Festival lanterns
"Playing with lanterns" on the first lunar month is one of the common festive activities among southern folk. The lantern features of Liukeng are one of its grand scale, and the other is that it expresses a strong cultural atmosphere.
Like "Playing Happy" and "He Yangshen", the Liukeng Lantern Festival is also organized by each house. The specific form of organization is also implemented in each "temple". People remember that the Sanyi Temple in Qiaoxi (Yin Gong and Yin Hua) houses lights up on the eighth day of the new year, and the Taizi Temple in Wenhuang’s public house lights up on the 12th of the first month. The Yangshan Temple in Wen Zhao Gongfang's "Qijia" has lights on on the eleventh day of the first lunar month. Only this temple has lights on for three consecutive nights. And the lights and the wandering spirits started on the same day, the wandering spirits during the day and the lights at night. There are many people in Yangshan Temple, and the wandering gods are also the most powerful. As soon as the Bodhisattva appeared in the temple, there were more than 20 statues in total, all in full gear. The flags were fluttering, the orchestra was playing, the gongs and drums were loud, and the gods and firecrackers were deafening. When the statue travels, it must travel through the eight alleys of the whole village, and it will take seven or eight hours before and after. At that time, the crowd was full of onlookers, and even people from the surrounding villages came to watch the fun. On the night of the Lantern Festival, when the lights reach a climax, the rotating room manages the activities of the night.
What opened the way for the entire lantern are two braziers carried by four people, and the charcoal fire in the basins will not be extinguished. A pair of gongs and drums and two divine guns followed closely behind, and the drums continued, and the momentum was greatly increased. Then came an older, older man, wearing a polite head and a robe, holding a candle in one hand and a civilized stick in the other. This is the elder in the rotating room, clearing the way. After that, there is a large archway lamp made of paper. This is the first lamp to appear. It is a facade and is very valued by people. Behind the lights, there are horizontal plaques and couplets, all of which are compliments describing the scene of the night. The high level actually reflects the overall cultural level of the literati in the rotating room. The gentry in the rotating room often racked their brains for this, lest they make mistakes and laugh at it, so they often hire other experts or other sex experts to write on their behalf. As soon as the light appeared, onlookers commented on it. If it was slightly inappropriate or wrong, someone would immediately point it out publicly and ask it to be replaced. The rotating room naturally refused to accept it, sneered at it, and wanted the accuser to write a song on the spot to show its prestige. And since bystanders dare to come forward and pick mistakes, in fact, they have a plan in their hearts, and they can do it with a single swipe, so why is it difficult? Some even have to write a copy and paste it on the torii light. As a result, the two sides quarreled, often resulting in quarrels and even fights. It can be seen from this that the cultural people in the various houses and branches compete for the best.
The duty room was worried about the weather that night. Because in the process of lighting, if the weather changes suddenly, wind or rain, sunny or cloudy, the plaque and couplet text on the archway lights will change randomly to suit the time. If you want a good sentence, it is more difficult. Therefore, literate people must be well prepared, and they must not make people feel that their culture is backward and inferior to others, so the villagers call it "performing ability".
Behind the archway lights, there are mikoshi, umbrellas, gongs and drums, lanterns, etc. If Fangzhi is on duty under the Yangshan temple system, the mikoshi usually has three rides. The first ride was Guan Gong's shrine, next to a person supporting a red-maned horse tied with paper. Next is the Prince's Mikoshi, a white horse tied with paper held by someone, and someone else lights a pair of red candles weighing more than 20 pounds. The third ride is the sedan chair with helmet and robe, which should be the sedan chair of the God of Yangshan. Behind the sedan chair is a Luogai umbrella and a pair of "small blowers". The bodhisattva travels with the lantern, which has the meaning of "holding the lantern".
After the mikoshi, there are various lanterns. Candles are lit in the lamps, the big ones are worn on bamboo poles, and the two of them carry one. Small, many are carried by children, each person has a few hundred, and it is said that there are thousands of them. The names of the lamps include "Yasa Palace Lantern", "Dragon Head Lantern", "Lion Lantern", "Phoenix Lantern", "Pendant Lantern", "Little Pink Lantern" and so on. Then there are various lanterns imitating horses, monkeys, rabbits, fish and other animals, as well as drum-shaped, hexagonal and octagonal lanterns. The lights are bright, the competition is bright, the drums are loud, and it is very lively. Most of the annual cost of lighting is spent on these various types of lights. In the duty room, usually in the twelfth lunar month of the first year, it is necessary to hire a full-time paper tying craftsman to tie a lot of lamps. Most of the lamps can be taken home by the lantern bearer after playing. The top grades with particularly fine workmanship must be returned to the temple as a souvenir.
The runner-up of the lantern team is the dragon lantern team, and there are usually as many as eight or nine. The dragon is a paper dragon, and the whole body is illuminated red by candlelight, which is very spectacular. After the dragon's lantern tour is over, he will be sent to a secluded place near the village to be incinerated. As soon as the dragon lantern is burned, the duty room of that year has completed the task, and it will be handed over to the duty room of the next year, which is called "handover A". If the items to be handed over belong to the Yangshan Temple House Department, they generally have the silver helmet of the Yangshan God. The copper incense burner in the ancestral hall, etc., and the ocean of sixty yuan. This is the capital handed down from the early years. Every year, the duty room takes over, and borrows others from it. The interest generated is used as the "lighting" expense of the year. But in fact, just relying on this interest money is far from enough, and the rotating housing must take a considerable part of the public property (such as mountains, fields, houses, etc.) income to pay for it. After the 1950s, there was no economic support for the lights, and the business has been out of business for many years.
On the night of Lantern Festival, there are all kinds of lanterns between the eight alleys. And in each household, there are also lights and candles, and under the eaves in front of the door, the lights are bright and bright. In the old days, there was a saying that each family enjoyed lanterns with cats and mice, and there was a saying that spread:
Lanterns, drum lights, cats and mice watching lanterns.
Gold and silver treasures roll in, bugs and fleas get out.
Then burn incense, blare, worship God, and fall asleep. As a result, the entertainment activities during the entire Spring Festival ended, and the busy Liukeng people had to prepare to run around again. Therefore, the popular saying at that time was:
Burning the door god paper, everyone is looking for business,
It was night, and the young girls also left a corner of innocence and pureness for themselves for auspiciousness. In groups of three or five, they headed to the outdoor vegetable field to "Shan Qing". Everyone picked a handful of vegetable leaves, beat them up and down, and sang in unison:
I played blue, I played blue, and I didn't have any gray stars on my little girl.
When I hit the green peep, there was no trace of ash on the little girl's body.
Then pick some vegetables with green leaves from the vegetable field, such as spinach, shallots, shepherd's purse, etc., go home and cook them, then sit around a table and drink some home-brewed rice wine for a rare small gathering.
In Liukeng, you can often see village women sitting around and playing with copper coins. The villagers call it playing copper coins, but outsiders find it strange and say: Here, ancient coins are played as cards. ”The copper coins used to play the copper coins are "Kangxi Tongbao", which is distinguished by the back text (Chinese) of the copper coins, including He, Zhejiang, Jiang, Fu, Ji, Shan, Guang, Yun, Ning, Gui, Tong , East, Xuan, Yuan, Chang, Lin, Zhang, Hua, West, South and other species. Take six kinds of coins at random from the above-mentioned coins, each with ten coins, and a total of 60 coins constitute a set of coins. If the "Kangxi Tongbao" cannot be matched, use the "Shunzhi Tongbao" with the same Chinese characters on the back. Its gameplay includes: forming people, setting bankers; dealing cards; whole cards; playing cards, entering cards;
Rice wine, moldy tofu, Zhuangyuan red fish (moldfish), Wujiang small fish, zipi, Chen meat and other foods have local characteristics. Handcrafts such as carpentry, plasterer, supporter, and slaughter are inherited.
Dong Sui scheming horses to commit crimes against the continent, punishing himself and abstaining from the common law; gold and silver are fighting; the story of Dong Chun's daughter is well known to the villagers.
Fourth, the historical status of Liukeng
In early November 1996, six experts including Luo Zhewen, the then head of the ancient architecture expert group of the State Administration of Cultural Heritage, Zheng Xiaoxie, deputy director of the National Historic and Cultural City Protection Expert Committee, and Bao Shixing, deputy secretary-general of the China Society for Urban Science, were invited to investigate In Keng Village, experts spoke highly of the value of Liukeng ancient culture and praised that "Liukeng residential buildings are indeed a pearl and a treasure in the field of architectural cultural relics".
Liukeng has increasingly become the location of many film and television dramas. On October 18, 2006, it was adapted from the novels "Star", "Fire" and "Harvest" by modern writer Ye Zi. The 32-episode TV series "Spark" co-produced by Beijing New Land Culture and Art Center started in Liukeng. On October 19, 2007, the 33-episode TV series "Spring Grass" jointly produced by Beijing TV Art Center and Beijing Century Xingrun Film and Television Investment Consulting Co., Ltd. started filming in Liukeng Village. The TV series "Peony Pavilion" was filmed here, and the prospects for its development and utilization are becoming increasingly broad.