1. The distribution of ancestral halls
There are eight alleys in Liukeng, and there are ancestral halls in the alleys. There are still more than 50 old ancestral halls scattered in the village. Although most of them are dilapidated and have long since lost the majesty of the day, the plaques on the gates of the ancestral halls that are still hanging high are reminiscent of the past.
Dong's earliest ancestral hall was built at the end of the Yuan Dynasty, but the scale and details have been lost. In the tenth year of Wanli (1582), when the genealogy of the whole family was completed, all the ancestral halls at that time were recorded in detail. In Liukeng Village alone, including the Great Ancestral Hall, there are a total of 26 ancestral halls. In addition, there are 20 "Colleges" or "Book Houses" and "Jingshes", 5 of which already have sacrificial fields and are often referred to as "ancestral halls". It shows that these "book houses" and "academies" are the same as ancestral halls in terms of the function of worshipping ancestors. The only difference is that "academy" and "book house" were originally used for reading or educating the children of the sacrificed person, and they were named after him in commemoration after their death. In addition, it is called "book house" or "academy", and it also has the meaning of highlighting culture and education. The descendants who come to worship can be inspired and enlightened, and they can be angry with their feelings. It can be said to kill two birds with one stone.
The genealogy that was repaired in the ten years of Wanli, leaving behind a "Map of Liukeng" at that time, is very valuable. A very interesting architectural layout is that most of the ancestral halls before the seventeenth century were built around the Eight Alleys. For example, in the north of the village, there are three ancestral halls, Dabao Temple (to worship the fourth ancestor Chun), and Guilin Temple (to worship the tenth ancestor Jimin). In the east of the village, there is the "Shinzhai Academy" where the tenth ancestor Zhongxiu is worshipped, and is located along the river. The west of the village is more dense: Shouzhai Temple, Zhonggang Temple and Yizhai Temple on both sides of Longchi are very close to each other. They are the sixteenth descendants of the third generation ancestor, Duke Tian Tian (Wen Zhao), and five of the eight major houses are their direct descendants, accounting for more than 80% of the population, which shows their importance. In the southwest and southeast of the village, there are two important ancestral halls in the house of another big house, School Book (Wen Huang), facing each other. The latter is the Huanshan Temple, dedicated to the sixteenth ancestor Yunqing, who belongs to the successor of the Zhu School of Wenhuang Gongfang, and the people are prosperous, and there are 100 acres of sacrificed fields. These ancestral halls, like patron saints, hide their descendants in the center. This reflects a cohesive feature of traditional villages in the southern region. Since people were born, they have been in a kinship network based on blood ties, protected by their ancestors, and thus formed a kind of cohesion.
2. Card owner settings
The card owner is the tablet in the ancestral hall. According to the traditional saying, the souls of deceased ancestors are attached to the tablet, accepting the worship and various fruits offered by descendants. The card owner is the substitute of the ancestors.
Before the 40th year of Jiajing in the Ming Dynasty (1561), in some important ancestral halls, in addition to the main ancestral shrine's main shrine, there were also a number of "attached enjoyments". The card owner is placed on both sides. Especially in the great ancestral hall, there are more clear regulations on who is qualified to be a "enroller". Roughly speaking, there are two criteria: either have an official position, or have a special contribution to family building.
In the past four hundred years, the ancestral halls of Liukeng people can be divided into two concentrated periods and two types. One is the Spring and Autumn Festival, which is mainly based on ancestor worship, which can be called ancestor worship in the strict sense; the other is ancestor worship associated with the Spring Festival, which can be called festive ancestor worship. These activities, regulated and reinforced by the clan's laws and organized by the clan chiefs and gentlemen, have become part of the clan's behavior and daily life, and have become customary.
The two festivals of Spring and Autumn, calculated in the lunar calendar, are concentrated in February to March and September to October. The Spring Festival is actually centered on Qingming; either before or after. However, because of the strict system of Liukeng ancestral halls and the large number of them, there is a problem of time-staggered arrangement. It has been recorded in the Wanli spectrum that before the 22nd century, the earliest ancestors of the two Fang Schools (Wen Zhaogong and Wen Huanggong) were the first to offer sacrifices. (Wen Huanggong) School Book Temple and (Wen Zhaogong's son Chungong) Dabao Temple are both worshipped on the fifth day of February, followed by the Great Ancestral Temple, which is on February seventeenth. Next, a group of ancestral halls held sacrifices from March 1st to March 18th. This chronological arrangement has remained unchanged for most of the Daoguang years. In fact, it has been in line with the festivals and customs of traditional society, and is basically separated from the anniversary of the death of the ancestral master. This is best illustrated by contrasting examples with changes. The twentieth-generation ancestor Zhijie, Wanli asked the Jingshan Temple to offer sacrifices, offering sacrifices on 50 acres of land, and offering sacrifices in spring on March 18th. When Daoguang arrived, the number of sacrifice fields increased to 200 acres, the spring sacrifice was changed to the fourth day of March, and the autumn sacrifice was on the fourth day of September, just half a year apart. Obviously, this is a change for the standardization of the Spring and Autumn Festival. The fourth day of March is by no means the anniversary of Dong Zhijie's death. Another example is the Xuefeng Jingshe, where Dong Shiwang was worshipped. During the Wanli period, a sacrifice was held every year. However, the Qing people built a new "Famous Temple", which is also to commemorate Dong Shiwang. The festivals are on the fifth day of the third month and the fifteenth day of the seventh month, which is actually the Qingming Festival and the Zhongyuan Festival. In this way, only from the perspective of ancestral sacrifices, Dong Shiwang is one person, and it has to be carried out three times a year. Another example is the "Rong Yihe Temple" built by the brothers Dong Sui and Dong Huan in the early Qing Dynasty.
After Qingming. Brothers and sisters are already clear, and it can be inferred which sacrifice comes first and which comes later. In general, spring sacrifices are particularly important. In addition to ancestral sacrifices, there are also a series of activities such as tomb sacrifices and hanging paper. This was still the case until the Republic of China.
3. Details of the sacrifice
In the old records of each house in Liukeng, some of the principles of ritual rituals of the Great Ancestral Hall are recorded, which are similar in appearance and unclear. There are some specific records left for each room. In the fourteenth year of Jiaqing (1809), the "Fu Le Liuxi Dongjingshan Public House Book" was revised, which recorded the "Spring and Autumn Sacrificial Regulations of Jingshan Academy", which is very detailed. The article "Regulations on sacrificial sacrifices" was formed after Yongzheng in the Qing Dynasty. Every Spring and Autumn Festival, the event will continue for several days:
Every year on the first day of the first month of March, it is offered to the Zhongtang. The original ancestors' tombs, miscellaneous firewood, trees and bamboos were rented for offering sacrifices, and the outside Yongzheng five years increased the purchase of land properties to support the sacrifices:.
I have the surname of the next son, and the eve of the province has no sacrifices. The ministers and those who are in their Pentecost drink alcohol, and the remaining loose money will be returned three to five times. The next morning, it is advisable to wear clean clothes, gather at the shrine at dawn to listen to the salute, and to be late is disrespectful. After the sacrifice, below the main sacrifice, the Pentecostal elders enjoy the beauty with the reading and deacons. In addition, each person will be given five cents of loose money, and the boys will be given three cents of loose money each time, and no noise is allowed. Those with lame head and feet are not allowed to lose money, and are not allowed to mess around with……
As for the second day of the first day of the first lunar month, the surname of the next son was Pianji, and the ceremony was completed at dawn. When they go home for breakfast, they lead the young and old to the shrine, and listen to the decrees and decrees. And citing the past to prove the present, it affirms the matter of etiquette, righteousness, integrity and shame. After the talk, let's drink …… together.
On the third day of the first day of the lunar new year, the festival ……
On the fifth day of the first lunar month, the sanctuary was divided into sanctuaries. According to the main seat, each person offered three taels of silver to buy property to supply millet and millet. The surname of the next son, fresh and clean clothes, gathered at dawn, and went to the temple to salute. It's looking good today. On the evening of the fourth day of the first lunar month, they must be at the age of 50, stay in the temple to drink alcohol, and go home with the rest of the three or five coins. The scattered dishes are counted according to the main position, and each person is one point. The officiant gave birth to three jins of xun, and each Sven gave birth to one jin of xun. One point each for reading and serving side dishes.
It can be seen that the sacrifice of the clansmen in Jingshan Academy is a combination of activities such as ancestor worship, education, clansmen drinking, and distributing a small amount of money and vegetables. It lasts for five days. There are detailed regulations on time, cost and even dress. However, for each specific clan, the number of sessions they participate in and the treatment they enjoy are different depending on their status: the first, second, fourth and third days of the first year, all the children of the clan should be present, and at least they can Have a meal and get some change. On the fifth day of the fifth day, the "Fenjiantang" is a small house branch offering sacrifices to their immediate ancestors, and quite a number of clansmen want to worship again.
4. Contemporary Family Festival
On the eve of the "Cultural Revolution", Liukeng people set about rebuilding the great ancestral hall that was burned down in the 1920s. However, when the "red storm" came, the new temple, which was only waiting for the completion of Gaiwa, naturally bore the brunt and brought it down. In the past, most of the ancestral halls used as collective ancestral worship places were in ruins, except for some of them that could still be occupied. Some houses are still good, but also empty. In the past ten years or so, villagers' ancestor worship has mainly been carried out in front of the shrines of each family.
When I asked the villagers, it was generally said that above the aisle between the front hall and the back room, there were also ancestral tablets on the left and shrines on the right. Just in a house in the middle lane, I saw very simple ancestral tablets on the left and right, each with a dozen pieces. Judging from the lettering and wood, it is obviously an old relic of the Republic of China. According to the memories of the elderly, in the past there was a single ancestral tablet at home, and there were no other "messy" things. In comparison, most home altars are much more cluttered now. Although there is a difference between the left ancestor and the right god, but looking closely at the content, it is already a mixture of gods and ancestors, sharing fireworks. This is best illustrated by the decorations on the altar in the East Exit of Qianyin Shangxiang. This kind of decoration gives the obvious impression that the gods are above the ancestors. However, the words "Guangchuan County" can be seen on the shrines of Liukeng families, which are the relics of past clan sacrifices. "Guangchuan" refers to Dong Zhongshu's hometown, and it is also a famous county watchman who traces the origin of many Dong surnames. The Dong family in Liukeng respected Dong Zhongshu as a distant ancestor, and there was a "Daoyuan Hall" in the old ancestral hall to commemorate him.
On the wall of the main hall of Yinlong Ancestral Hall, a piece of red paper was pasted in place of the altar. ” Ancestors are placed first. But just below the red paper, a detailed picture of Yinlong Fang Zongzhi was drawn in white and red. It was obviously used in worshiping ancestors in recent years, but the gods were above and the ancestors were below.
I asked quite a few householders about which ancestors and which village gods were worshipped by burning incense at home, and why they worshiped. Almost no one could say why. It makes people feel that the contemporary family sacrifices of Liukeng people actually combine ancestor worship with sacrifice to gods. They do not seek knowledge, but only their spirit, which is to bless the villagers' daily life and production smoothly. The general ritual of the temple is in line with the changes in recent years when the village temples have been destroyed and reduced, and the activities of worshiping the gods have been suppressed. However, from the perspective of cultural connotation, it seems that the level of ancestor worship is lower than that of pure ancestor worship in the past, which has broken a cultural inheritance relationship. It makes people see that over the years, all kinds of miscellaneous gods with Taoist gods as their mother have increasingly infiltrated the rural society and affected the spiritual life of the villagers.
The villagers are serious and pious about the ritual of the family sacrifice itself. Usually, on the morning of the first and fifteenth day of the lunar calendar every month, the small copper bells hanging by the altar of the gods are knocked, oiled, and a few offerings placed. Most people also set off a small hanging firecracker first. Every time this time, in this village of more than 8,000 households, the sound of firecrackers echoes one after another, adding to the noise.