Liukeng Village is a rural settlement dominated by the surname Dong, linked by blood ties. Its characteristics are mainly reflected in the typical Jiangxi Hewan small basin structure, seven horizontal and one vertical roadway layout, complete types, large numbers and large-scale ancient buildings, profound cultural heritage of agriculture, business, farming and reading, and the feudal clan society in China's rural areas. Typical and other aspects:
1. Typical Jiangxi River Bay Small Basin Structure
Le'an County is located in the northern part of the hills in the south of central Jiangxi Province. Low mountains, hills, hills and small basins are intertwined within the territory. Liukeng Village is located in one of the small basins surrounded by mountains. Liukeng Village is backed by the Golden Drum Peak at the northwestern foot of the mountain range, surrounded by green mountains on all sides. The water of the Wujiang River (also known as Niutian River) flows from the mountains and ridges in the southeast of the village, like a green belt, to the edge of the village and turns to the west, making the Liukeng surrounded by water on three sides. According to the test, during the Jiajing and Wanli years of Ming Dynasty, seven long lakes—Longhu Lake—composed of ponds that are closely connected from south to north and stretch like dragons, were dug out artificially at the western edge of the village, forming a unique feng shui pattern. Call it the "Living Water Arrangement". Ten miles of camphor, stretching along the banks of the Wujiang River, is lush and green. Nearly 100 ancient trees shaded the village, blended in the mountains and waters, and in the mist, forming a magnificent ink painting scroll.
Two, seven horizontal and one vertical lane layout
Liukeng was built as a village in the Southern Tang Dynasty in the Five Dynasties. It was rebuilt to its current size during the Wanli period of the Ming Dynasty. The current appearance of the village is basically consistent with the "Map of Liukeng" on the family tree of Dong's family in Wanli of the Ming Dynasty.
The ancient village extends along the Wujiang River. There are seven piers on the banks of the Wujiang River, each of which faces an alley. In the shape of a comb that is horizontal and vertical, there are many alleys in the vertical direction of the main alley to communicate with each other, like a chessboard. All roadways are paved with cobblestones, and ditches are dug on the side to collect rainwater and domestic water into Longhu Lake, and then flow into the lower reaches of the Wujiang River in the northwest of the village. The residences and ancestral halls were built near the alleys. Alley gates and watchtowers were built at the beginning and end of the alleys, and the village walls were connected between the watchtowers for defense. There is a Chaochao Street in the west of the village, where the villagers conduct commodity transactions, which meets the requirements of supply and demand. The ancestral hall of the whole family is built in Molanzhou in the north of the village, and other temples and temples are built outside the village. The layout of the entire village is very similar to a city, which not only reflects the patriarchal organizational relationship of blood villages, but also reflects the planning thinking of the lane layout in the city construction at that time.
Third, ancient buildings with complete types, large numbers and large scales
Among the more than 500 existing buildings in Liukeng Village, there are more than 260 traditional buildings and ruins of Ming and Qing Dynasties, including 19 buildings and ruins of Ming Dynasty, which can be called "the standard of Jiangxi Ming and Qing architecture". Among these traditional buildings, there are classical residential buildings, magnificent ancestral buildings, elegant and unique temple buildings, and cultural buildings with different functions, such as memorial halls, cultural halls, theaters, arches, and shops. , wells, bridges, ancient tombs, ancient pagoda ruins, etc., the types are complete and the number is large.
1. Residential buildings have strong local characteristics
Liukeng Village has well preserved a number of Ming Dynasty and early Qing Dynasty dwellings with exact ages, which provides valuable material materials for the study of the evolution of Ming Dynasty dwelling buildings to Qing Dynasty dwelling buildings. It can be called "Jiangxi Ming and Qing Architecture" standard". The residential buildings in Liukeng Village are all half-story buildings with brick and wood structure, with simple layout, simple and elegant. It is generally a rectangular plane, enclosed by an empty bucket brick wall, all blue bricks and gray tiles, and a horse head wall with rich shapes. The layout is mostly two-entry and three-bay, one hall and one hall, or front hall and back hall, or front hall and back hall, with three rooms in width, a hall in the bright room, and a bedroom in the second room. The bedroom is one-and-a-half-storey high, the lower floor lives, and the upper half of the floor is used to store miscellaneous items. The hall is not divided into layers, so it looks tall and spacious. The indoor floor is paved with long blue bricks with horizontal staggered joints. There are relatively narrow patios in front of the halls, and residences generally have a front door and a back door. The front door leads to the main hall, and the back door is connected to the pantry or kitchen. The main door in the Ming and early Qing dynasties was mostly side-entry. After the middle of the Qing Dynasty, the door was generally opened on the central axis. The forms are different, and the one-character door, the eight-character door, the archway type door, the convex type door and the door cover type door are more common. The interior decoration focuses on wood carvings, diagonal braces, sparrows, and door and window panes. These structural components have been carefully crafted, with rich themes and diverse techniques, and every household is different. In addition, brick carvings, brick carvings, stone carvings, stone carvings, color paintings, ink paintings and other decorations can also be seen everywhere.
The style of Liukeng Village's residential buildings was summarized by the historian Yao Gongqian as "not both officials and civilians, but also officials and civilians; neither urban nor rural, but also urban and rural". However, from the perspective of its historical development process, it has gone through a process of condensing the people before the officials, and the township before the city. Its function and overall layout are still residential buildings that mainly reflect the living and practicality. Liukeng dwellings are rooted in the lands of Fuzhou and Jizhou in central Gansu province, which have prosperous economy and culture in the history of our province.
2. A large number of ancestral temple buildings
The existing temple buildings in Liukeng Village can be roughly divided into two categories: large and small ancestral halls all over the village and various temples standing along the river on the side of the village. Its number is second only to the dwellings, and it has various shapes and structures.
The ancestral hall of Liukeng Village has a typical local style, and most of them are combined with ancestral houses. The building plan is roughly similar to that of a private house, and it is generally a vertical rectangle. It is also built facing the roadway, and some have a courtyard in front. The main building has one to three entrances, but two entrances are more. The gate is in the middle of the front wall, mostly in the archway style. There may be patios indoors, with footbridges running through them, or just "concave"-shaped ditches. There is a door in the middle of the lower hall, and the interior is in a straight line, which is the biggest difference from residential buildings. The ancestral hall facade is not only open, but also the archway-style door has exquisite brick carving patterns. Most of the indoor bright rooms adopt the modified bucket-type structure, omitting the central column, connecting the front and rear golden columns with longitudinal beams, and standing on the beams to support the tower and the upper frame. For those who omit the beam frame for a while, the bucket-style column frame and decoration frame are painted on the brick wall, which is very realistic. There are also many paintings on the ceiling. The upper and lower halls are built in the style of upper and lower halls. The upper hall has two more floors. The upper floor is the Yushu Pavilion or the Imperial Book Pavilion, which is used for book collection; the lower eaves are turned into ancestral shrines.
Liukeng Village has far more temple buildings than other villages. Only the existing ones, along the Wujiang River from the southeast to the northwest, there are Sanguan Hall, Taizi Temple, Wudang Pavilion, Guanyin Hall, the Jade Emperor Pavilion at the entrance of the village, the Land Temple and two small temples in the north of the village and the former site of Baiyutang, and the west of the village. The palace of Han Chu (the Temple of the Eight Princes); it is even more difficult to know the number of those that collapsed and did not survive. There are quite a variety of gods in the temple, including Buddhist gods such as Guanyin and Maitreya, Taoist immortals such as Sanguan, and more sages, sages and miscellaneous gods of the industry. In terms of building area and shape, they vary in size, complexity and simplicity. Among the temples with larger scale and more complex structure, there are Prince Temple, Sanguan Hall and Wudang Pavilion, and some of them also form building groups. As a single building, there is a gate in the middle of the front and a shrine in the middle of the interior. No change.
3. Cultural and monumental buildings
Liukeng Village has many generations of scholars, so there are many cultural and monumental buildings in the village, and the architectural art is far superior to ordinary dwellings, in the form of academies, theaters, and arches. However, in the replacement of the dynasty and the disasters of soldiers and bandits, such buildings were severely destroyed or even destroyed.
From the Song and Yuan Dynasties to the Ming and Qing Dynasties, Liukeng Village was taught by family and teachers, and there were many academies in the village. The building plane of Liukeng Academy is generally a vertical rectangle. The front is a horizontal rectangular courtyard, and the two sides of the courtyard walls in the middle of the front wall are respectively equipped with archway-style doors; the rear is the main building with three bays, two entrances, and three scholars. A comprehensive building integrating Confucianism, Jingxian and books. There are usually small annexes on one side of the main building. The Wenguan on Molanzhou in the north of the village is the largest academy still in the village. It was built in the Ming Dynasty and rebuilt in the Qing Dynasty. Inside the library, the two sides are the study rooms for the disciples, and the middle hall is the lecture hall for teachers. On the side of the library, there is also a small garden and library.
Most of the theaters were built on the square in front of the religious buildings, and they were used for acting to reward the gods. During the Ming and Qing dynasties, the folk theaters in the south of the Yangtze River were also connected with ancestral halls and temples. From Liukeng Village to the late Qing Dynasty, there were still three theaters, the Yangshan Temple Theater and the Taizi Temple Theater to the east of Longhu. The former was in the village and could accommodate thousands of spectators; the latter was built by the Wujiang River and was used for the Dragon Boat Festival. Place: There is the Jade Emperor Temple Stage in the west of Longhu Lake, which is located in Qipan Street. Now there is only one of the three, that is, the big stage in the village, which was converted from the Yangshan Temple. The Yangshan Temple Grand Stage is a four-in-one building including a stage, a viewing field, a four-cornered pavilion and a shrine.
Fourth, the profound cultural heritage of agriculture, business, farming and reading
Liukeng Village was founded in the Southern Tang Dynasty of the Five Dynasties (937-975) and is a village with a history of more than a thousand years. The village's surname is Dong, and he claims to be the descendant of Dong Zhongshu, a great scholar in the Han Dynasty.
Before the Sui and Tang Dynasties, this place was a quiet, deep, deserted place. When Dong He came here in the Southern Tang Dynasty, it was "like the realm of fish and mallards" (Tongzhi "Yongfeng County Chronicle"). With the help of a good natural environment, the Dong family gradually developed into a big family with prosperous divisions and successive officials, and it dominated Jiangyou. In the early years of the Northern Song Dynasty, Liukeng Dong seized the opportunity of the imperial court to protect Wen and Qingwu, poured out his assets, Daxing Academy, and educated talents. As a result, the academic divisions of the past dynasties were at their peak, and famous Confucian scholars emerged one after another, which made them become the official family from the common family, and developed rapidly. There were many academies in Liukeng in the Song Dynasty, 26 academies and academies in the Wanli period of the Ming Dynasty, and 28 in the Daoguang period of the Qing Dynasty. There are so many academies and academies in one village, which shows that Dong attaches great importance to cultural education. In addition to the academy buildings, there are many monumental cultural buildings in the village, such as the Zhuangyuan Building, the Hanlin Building, and the Wuguifang Site. Since the beginning of the Song Dynasty, there have been 1 scholar and 1 champion in martial arts, 34 jinshi, and 78 people in the village, ranging from political affairs, ministers, imperial officials, imperial censors, county magistrates, master books, and teaching decrees, totaling more than 100 people. There are also two imperial physicians and many literati bachelors who have not yet entered the official career.
After the middle of the Ming Dynasty, the imperial examinations in Liukeng gradually declined, but the commercial economy mainly based on bamboo and wood trade has been greatly developed. From Jinzhu and Zhaoxie in the upper reaches of the Wujiang River, Liukeng people trafficked bamboo and wood to Sanhu, Zhangshu, Nanchang and other ports along the Ganjiang River, and even Nanjing, Yangzhou, Changzhou and other places in the lower reaches of the Yangtze River for sale. In the Qing Dynasty, the bamboo trade in the upper reaches of the Wujiang River was monopolized by the Dong clan in Liukeng, and the bamboo and wood resources were the public property of the Dong clan. Power controls the bamboo and wood trade in Wujiang. The outstanding development of bamboo and wood trade has brought extremely profound and significant influence to Liukeng society, and merchants have come from behind in terms of quantity, economy and political status. After many businessmen became rich, they first bought mountains and fields to build houses; then they built ancestral halls, built roads and bridges, opened schools, and honored their ancestors; The huge wealth accumulation brought by the bamboo and wood trade made Liukeng Village prosper again. At the same time, affected by the development of commodity trade in the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River, the proportion of commercial crops in Liukeng Village increased, the traditionally used rice and other planting areas decreased, and the planting areas of economic crops such as sugarcane, indigo, and tobacco increased.
Five, the typical feudal clan society in rural China
For more than a thousand years from the Southern Tang Dynasty to the present, the Dong clan in Liukeng have been living in a single surname, which not only laid an objective foundation for the Dong clan activities, but also formed a solid carrier of traditional clan culture. The strict feudal clan system is an important pillar for the Liukeng Dong clan to unite the clan, maintain order and stabilize the clan. Today, Liukeng Village still shows people the remains of feudal clan activities in rural areas: there are many versions of clan genealogy, clan ancestral halls all over the village, clan activities in transition, and colorful clan culture. Cultivating genealogy and linking the clan members together according to the patrilineal blood relationship is an important spiritual bond to maintain the clan system and an important symbol of the construction and development of clan organizations. Liukeng Dong started to revise the score in the early years of the Southern Song Dynasty, and in Wanli of the Ming Dynasty, he went through five revisions successively and completed the fourth score, saying: "Original Score", "Old Score", "New Score", "" Rebuild the new score", and later, it will be changed to be repaired by each house. So far, the village still preserves 3 copies of Ming Wanli genealogy, and more than 20 versions of each family genealogy. All kinds of genealogy are well preserved. They are precious historical materials for studying the occurrence and development of the Dong clan in Liukeng. In particular, the Ming Wanli genealogy is not only very rich in content, Moreover, writing, engraving, paper, and printing are all excellent, and are praised by experts as rare treasures in the collection of cultural relics, which are very valuable. If it is said that cultivating genealogy is only spiritually instructing the people to "respect their ancestors and respect their ancestors", then building ancestral halls and participating in various clan activities around ancestor worship in ancestral halls can undoubtedly make clan members generally, often, and Feel the spirit of clan culture directly and figuratively. The ancestral temples and ancestral halls in Liukeng Village are dotted. There are ancestral halls in the houses, and there are ancestral halls in the lanes. The houses and lanes correspond to each other. There were 26 ancestral halls in the village during the Wanli period of the Ming Dynasty, and the number increased to 120 during the Daoguang period of the Qing Dynasty. There are still 100 ancestral halls in the village, making Liukeng a prominent cultural landscape. In addition to writing genealogy, building ancestral halls, and worshiping ancestors,Liukeng Dong also took many measures, such as strengthening the clan leadership, formulating clan rules, increasing clan property, and carrying out various clan cultural activities, so as to continuously enhance the family's centripetal force and cohesion.
Liukeng Village is a clan living settlement formed by blood as the bond. It is one of the first twelve historical and cultural villages in the country and the first national historical and cultural village in Jiangxi Province. The whole village spreads out along the Wujiang River. Seven east-west lanes are arranged perpendicular to the Wujiang River, and are connected with a north-south vertical lane next to the West Dragon Lake in the village, forming a pattern of seven horizontal and one vertical lanes. The layout of the village not only reflects the patriarchal organizational relationship of blood villages, but also reflects the planning thinking of the lane layout in the city construction at that time. There are a large number of ancient buildings in Liukeng, complete types and large scales. A number of houses of the Ming Dynasty and the early Qing Dynasty of the exact age have been preserved, and they have the traditional style of central Gansu. They are known as "the standard of Jiangxi Ming and Qing architecture". . The famous historical and cultural village of Liukeng embodies the regional characteristics in terms of settlement composition, architectural form and values. The cultivation and reading culture of advocating literature and Confucianism, and the commercial economy based on bamboo and wood trade reflect the political, economic, cultural and social fundamentals of the Ming, Qing, and Republic of China and other historical stages. The politics, economy and culture of rural society under the patriarchal system are of great historical and academic value.